The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a pilot mindfulness program for student athletes by assessing mental health, mindfulness ability, and perceived stress before and after the intervention. The mindfulness program was adapted from a program developed at the University of Southern California. The four-session intervention taught the basics of mindfulness, self-care skills, and guided meditations. Participants completed surveys before and after the intervention. Mindfulness ability was assessed with the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, mental health was assessed with a modified Short Form Health Survey, and stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale. After the intervention, participants reported improvement in mindfulness ability, t(28) = −2.61, p = .014, mental health, t(28) = −2.87, p = .008, and a trending improvement in perceived stress, t(28) = 1.86, p = .073. A short mindfulness program may be effective for improving mental health and mindfulness ability in collegiate student athletes.
Audrey G. Evers, Jessica A Somogie, Ian L. Wong, Jennifer D. Allen, and Adolfo G. Cuevas
Carl G. Mattacola, David H. Perrin, Bruce M. Gansneder, Jennifer D. Allen, and Cheryl A. Mickey
This study evaluated a visual analog scale (VAS) and a graphic rating scale (GRS) for the measurement of pain following delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and following treatment for the symptoms of DOMS. Data from two studies were used to evaluate the scales. Pain intensity was assessed prior to and following induction of DOMS and immediately before and after each treatment session. In Study 1, subjects were randomly assigned to receive a 20-min ice pack followed by a 7-min sham ultrasound treatment or a 20-min ice pack followed by a 7-min nonthermal ultrasound treatment. In Study 2, subjects received a 20-rain microcurrent neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) treatment or a 20-min sham MENS treatment. In both studies, significant differences were found between the VAS and GRS scales for pretest conditions on Days 1 and 2 for all subjects. There were no significant differences between any other days or tests. The differences on Day 1 and Day 2 were attributed to the novelty of filling out the scales. Therefore, a. visual analog or graphic rating scale can be used to evaluate pain intensity following DOMS when repeated measurement is involved, although consideration should be given to potential differences the first one or two times the scales are completed.