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  • Author: Jennifer L. Caputo x
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Holly R. Huddleston, Vaughn Barry and Jennifer L. Caputo

Background:

The purpose was to characterize energy expenditure (EE) during academic subjects and activities during an elementary school day.

Methods:

Children in 2nd to 4th grades (N = 33) wore the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for 5 school days to measure EE. Teachers’ logs were compared with SWA data to extract information about EE throughout the day. Energy expenditure was also compared among grades.

Results:

After controlling for body mass, grade level was not a significant predictor of average daily caloric expenditure, F (2, 17.58) = .29, P = .75, ω2 = .05. When comparing activities throughout the day, relative rates of EE differed significantly, Wilks’ F (7, 23) = 52.2, P = .00, ηp 2 = .94, with PE and recess having higher EE. When academic subjects were compared (math, science, language arts), relative rate of EE was also significantly different, Wilks’ F (2, 30) = 4.31, P = .02, ηp 2 = .22. For the full sample, relative rate EE was higher in science than in language arts.

Conclusions:

The school day provides opportunity for EE for children. These data support the potential benefit of active instruction in language arts as a method to increase school day EE.

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J. Bradley Jordan, Ajit Korgaokar, Richard S. Farley, John M. Coons and Jennifer L. Caputo

This study examined the effects of caffeine supplementation (6 mg·kg−1) on performance of a reactive agility test (RAT) in 17 elite, male, youth (M = 14 y) soccer players. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, players completed 4 days of testing on the RAT after a standardized warm-up. On day 1, anthropometric measurements were taken and players were accommodated to the RAT. On day 2, baseline performance was established. Caffeine or placebo conditions were randomly assigned on day 3 and the condition was reversed on day 4. Players completed 3 randomized trials of the RAT on days 2, 3, and 4 with at least 1 trial to the players’ dominant and nondominant sides. There were no significant differences among conditions in reaction time (RT) to the dominant side, heart rates at any point of measurement, or ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) after completion of the warm-up. Caffeine produced faster RT to the nondominant side (P = .041) and higher RPE at the conclusion of the RAT (P = .013). The effect on the total time (TT) to complete the agility test to the nondominant side approached significance (P = .051). Sprint time and TT to either side did not differ. Caffeine supplementation may provide ergogenic benefit to elite, male, youth soccer players.

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Brandi M. Eveland-Sayers, Richard S. Farley, Dana K. Fuller, Don W. Morgan and Jennifer L. Caputo

Background:

The benefits of physical fitness are widely acknowledged and extend across many domains of wellness. The association between fitness and academic achievement, however, remains to be clarified, especially in young children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fitness and academic achievement in elementary school children.

Methods:

Data were collected from 134 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade children. One-mile run time, body mass index, curl-up, and sit-and-reach data were collected from physical education instructors in Middle Tennessee. The percentage of questions answered correctly for the mathematics and reading/language arts sections of the Terra-Nova achievement test was taken as a measure of academic achievement.

Results:

A negative association (P < .01) was noted between 1-mile run times and mathematics scores (r = –.28), whereas a positive relationship (P < .05) was observed between muscular fitness and mathematics scores (r = .20). Relative to sex differences, inverse relationships (P < .05) were observed between 1-mile run times and reading/language arts and mathematics scores in girls (r = –.31 and –.36, respectively), but no significant associations were evident in boys.

Conclusions:

Results from this study support a link between specific components of physical fitness and academic achievement in elementary school children.

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David R. Dolbow, Richard S. Farley, Jwa K. Kim and Jennifer L. Caputo

The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular responses to water treadmill walking at 2.0 mph (3.2 km/hr), 2.5 mph (4.0 km/hr), and 3.0 mph (4.8 km/hr) in older adults. Responses to water treadmill walking in 92 °F (33 °C) water were compared with responses to land treadmill walking at 70 °F (21 °C) ambient temperature. After an accommodation period, participants performed 5-min bouts of walking at each speed on 2 occasions. Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were significantly higher during therapeutic water treadmill walking than during land treadmill walking. Furthermore, VO2, HR, and RPE measures significantly increased with each speed increase during both land and water treadmill walking. SBP significantly increased with each speed during water treadmill walking but not land treadmill walking. Thus, it is imperative to monitor HR and blood pressure for safety during this mode of activity for older adults.

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Don W. Morgan, Wayland Tseh, Jennifer L. Caputo, Ian S. Craig, Daniel J. Keefer and Philip E. Martin

The purpose of this study was to quantify running economy (RE) during level treadmill running in 6-year-old children and to identify the potentially mediating effects of resting oxygen uptake and body fat percentage on sex differences in RE. Resting oxygen uptake (VO2), body fat, and RE at 5 mph were quantified in 15 boys and 20 girls following 30 min of treadmill accommodation. While absolute VO2 and mass-related values of gross and net VO2 were significantly higher in boys compared to girls, gross VO2 expressed relative to fat-free mass was not different between sexes. These results indicate that 6-year-old girls exhibit better RE compared to 6-year-old boys when VO2 is expressed as a function of total body mass. This sex difference in VO2 may reflect an increase in aerobic energy demands associated with the presence of a greater muscle mass in boys.

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Layci J. Harrison, Kala L. Young, Sandra L. Stevens and Jennifer L. Caputo

A 19-year-old collegiate softball player collided with a fence while trying to catch a fly ball, resulting in a greenstick fibular fracture. Underwater treadmill training (UTT) was used as a modality to supplement traditional physical therapy (TPT). Active range of motion (AROM) in all directions for the knee, hip, and ankle, girth of the thigh and lower leg, static balance, and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance were assessed pre- and postintervention. The addition of UTT to TPT led to postintervention increases in AROM, static balance, and limb girth, with no additional discomfort to the participant.

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John M. Coons, Richard S. Farley, Jwa K. Kim and Jennifer L. Caputo

Edited by Kathleen Laquale

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Jason J. Rutkowski, Robert J. Robertson, Wayland D. Tseh, Jennifer L. Caputo, Daniel J. Keefer, Kristin M. Sutika and Donald W. Morgan

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether either the differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for the legs (RPE-L) or chest (RPE-C) were higher than the overall body RPE (RPE-O) in children performing treadmill walking. A differentiated RPE that was higher than the RPE-O was considered the dominant perceptual signal. Thirty-one 10-year-old participants (16 boys, 15 girls) performed six separate 5-min bouts of level treadmill walking at different speeds. During each bout of exercise, RPEs were recorded using the modified Children’s OMNI Scale. Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ventilation (VE) were measured during Minutes 4 and 5 at each walking speed. VO2, HR, and VE increased as walking speed increased, as did perceived exertion. No differences were observed among RPE-O, RPE-L, and RPE-C at any speed. In addition, boys and girls exhibited similar responses for each perceptual and physiological variable. In conclusion, a dominant differentiated perceptual rating was not found at slow-to-moderate treadmill walking speeds for either boys or girls. Neither the respiratory–metabolic nor peripheral ratings of perceived exertion appeared to dominate the whole-body sensory-integration process in this sample.