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  • Author: Jennifer O’Loughlin x
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Erin K. O’Loughlin, Catherine M. Sabiston, Erika N. Dugas and Jennifer L. O’Loughlin

Background:

It is not known if or how exercise behavior regulations (EBRs) relate to exergaming in adolescents. The study objectives were 1) to determine if EBRs differ between adolescents who do and do not exergame; and 2) among exergamers, to describe the associations between EBRs and exergame duration, intensity, and achieving physical activity (PA) guidelines.

Methods:

This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in mailed self-report questionnaires completed by 1243 students (mean ± SDage = 16.8 ± 0.5 years; 43% boys).

Results:

In girls, those who exergamed scored higher than nonexergamers on introjected (mean ± SD = 1.9 ± 1.0 vs.1.6 ± 0.9; P = .001) and identified (mean ± SD = 3.1 ± .0 vs.2.9 ± 0.9; P = .049) regulation. Exergame intensity was associated with identified regulation [OR (95% CI) = 2.2 (1.0, 4.5)], minutes exergaming per week was associated with amotivation [β (95% CI) = 0.4 (−0.0, 0.8)], and achieving guidelines was associated with external [OR (95% CI) = 3.7 (1.0, 13.4)] and identified [OR (95% CI) = 5.6 (2.0, 16.0)] regulations. In boys who exergamed, intrinsic regulation was associated with exergame duration [β (95% CI) = −0.3 (−0.6, 0.0)].

Conclusions:

Girls who exergame may have partially internalized exergaming as a PA behavior. Boys may prefer other types of PA such as team sports or other more traditional videogames over exergaming or they may not view exergaming as PA.

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Kellie A. Langlois, Nicholas Birkett, Rochelle Garner and Jennifer O’Loughlin

Background:

Despite the benefits of physical activity, many Canadian adolescents are inactive and rates of inactivity increase with age. Few studies describe the pattern of change in physical activity as a function of age during adolescence.

Methods:

Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study. The analytic sample included 1206 adolescents who completed a 7-day physical activity recall up to 4 times per year over 5 years. Individual growth models, analyzed using multilevel models for change, were developed separately by sex controlling for season.

Results:

Physical activity levels through adolescence were best described by a cubic function. Levels increased from age 12 to a peak at approximately age 13.5, decreased to age 16.5, and increased again to age 17. Activity participation was highest in the spring and lowest during fall and winter. Substantial within- and between-subject heterogeneity in the trajectories was evident.

Conclusion:

Adolescent physical activity follows a complex, curvilinear pattern in both males and females, with considerable variation within- and between-persons.

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Catherine M. Sabiston, Rachel Jewett, Garcia Ashdown-Franks, Mathieu Belanger, Jennifer Brunet, Erin O’Loughlin and Jennifer O’Loughlin

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = −.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.

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Lisa Kakinami, Erin K. O’Loughlin, Erika N. Dugas, Catherine M. Sabiston, Gilles Paradis and Jennifer O’Loughlin

Background:

Compared with traditional nonactive video games, exergaming contributes significantly to overall daily physical activity (PA) in experimental studies, but the association in observational studies is not clear.

Methods:

Data were available in the 2011 to 2012 wave of the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study (N = 829). Multivariable sex-stratified models assessed the association between exergaming (1–3 times per month in the past year) and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity in the previous week, and the association between exergaming and meeting PA recommendations.

Results:

Compared with male exergamers, female exergamers were more likely to believe exergames were a good way to integrate PA into their lives (89% vs 62%, P = .0001). After we adjusted for covariates, male exergamers were not significantly different from male nonexergamers in minutes of PA. Female exergamers reported 47 more minutes of moderate PA in the previous week compared with female nonexergamers (P = .03). There was no association between exergaming and meeting PA recommendations.

Conclusion:

Exergaming contributes to moderate minutes of PA among women but not among men. Differences in attitudes toward exergaming should be further explored.

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Katya M. Herman, Gilles Paradis, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Jennifer O’Loughlin, Angelo Tremblay and Marie Lambert

This study examines the association between objectively-measured physical activity (PA) intensities and sedentary behavior (SED) in a cohort of 532 children aged 8–10 y. PA and SED were assessed by accelerometer over 7-days. Television and computer/video-game use were self-reported. Associations between PA intensities and SED variables were assessed by Spearman correlations and adjusted multiple linear regression. Higher mean daily moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous PA (MVPA, VPA) were negatively associated with mean daily SED (r = −0.47 and −0.37; p < .001), and positively associated with mean daily total PA (r = .58 and 0.46; p < .001). MVPA was also positively associated with light PA (LPA; r = .26, p < .00l). MVPA and VPA were not significantly associated with TV, computer/video or total screen time; accelerometer SED was only weakly associated with specific SED behaviors. On average, for each additional 10 min daily MVPA, children accumulated >14 min less SED, and for each additional 5 min VPA, 11 min less SED. Thus, over the course of a week, higher mean daily MVPA may displace SED time and is associated with higher total PA over and above the additional MVPA, due to concomitant higher levels of LPA. Public health strategies should target both MVPA and SED to improve overall PA and health in children.