Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author: Jennifer R. O’Neill x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Jennifer R. O’Neill, Russell R. Pate and Michael W. Beets

Background:

The aims of this study were to describe the physical activity levels of girls during dance classes and to identify factors associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in those classes.

Methods:

Participants were 137 girls (11 to 18 years-old) enrolled in ballet, jazz, or tap dance classes from 11 dance studios. Participants wore an accelerometer during the selected dance class on 2 separate days. Factors hypothesized to be associated with MVPA were dance style, instructional level, instructor’s experience, percent of class time spent in choreography, and participants’ age, race/ethnicity, BMI-for-age percentile, and years of dance training. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models.

Results:

Girls engaged in 9.8 minutes of MVPA, 6.0 minutes of moderate, 3.8 minutes of vigorous, 39.3 minutes of light, and 10.9 minutes of sedentary behavior per hour of dance class participation. Jazz/tap classes provided more MVPA than ballet classes, and intermediate level classes provided more MVPA than advanced level classes. Girls with more dance training obtained more MVPA than girls with less dance training.

Conclusion:

Dance classes provide valuable opportunities for adolescent girls to be physically active.

Restricted access

Jennifer R. O’Neill, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Background:

Little is known about the relationship between children’s physical activity (PA) in preschool (in-school) and outside of preschool (out-of-school). This study described this relationship.

Methods:

Participants were 341 children (4.6 ± 0.3 years) in 16 preschools. Accelerometers measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity (TPA) in-school and out-of-school. In the full sample, Pearson correlation was used to describe associations between in-school and out-of-school PA. In addition, children were categorized as meeting or not meeting a PA guideline during school. MVPA and TPA were compared between the 2 groups and in-school and out-of-school using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance.

Results:

In the full sample, in-school and out-of-school PA were positively correlated for MVPA (r = .13, P = .02) and TPA (r = .15, P = .01). Children who met the guideline in-school remained comparably active out-of-school. However, those who did not meet the guideline were more active out-of-school than in-school. The groups were active at comparable levels while out-of-school. Identical patterns were seen for MVPA and TPA.

Conclusions:

Children’s in-school PA was positively associated with out-of-school PA. Children who did not meet the guideline in-school were more active out-of-school than in-school, suggesting preschool and classroom factors may reduce some children’s PA in-school.

Restricted access

Russell R. Pate, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill and Dianne S. Ward

Background:

Physical activity levels of girls decline in adolescence, but little is known about changes in participation in specific types of physical activity. This study examined change in participation in specific activities during adolescence in girls.

Methods:

Girls (N = 398, age 13.6 ± 0.6 y at baseline, 58.5% African American) from 31 middle and 24 high schools in South Carolina completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) in 8th, 9th, and 12th grades. Girls reported their predominant activity and its intensity level in each 30-min time block on the previous 3 d.

Results:

Vigorous physical activity declined from 45.4% in 8th grade to 34.1% in 12th grade. The probability of participating in several forms of vigorous physical activity in 12th grade was strongly associated with participation in those activities in 8th grade.

Conclusion:

Early-in-life participation in sports and other forms of vigorous physical activity are important to the maintenance of physical activity during adolescence in girls.

Restricted access

Deborah B. Horn, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with physical activity (PA) in women during the first year following high school.

Methods:

Females from 22 high schools (n = 915) completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in 12th grade and reported if they were sports participants. After graduation, 305 women (18.9 ± 0.6 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. They reported time spent per day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) for the previous week. Multiple logistic regression was used to predict postgraduate PA.

Results:

The odds of being in the high-active group were greater in women who were sports participants (OR = 1.93) in 12th grade. The odds of being in the high-active group were greater among white women (OR = 2.09) and greater among currently employed women compared with unemployed women (OR = 5.57). MVPA had borderline significance in the regression model.

Conclusion:

Sports participation and being currently employed predicted physical activity at postgraduation.

Restricted access

Haixia Guo, Michaela A. Schenkelberg, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Purpose: To determine if weight status modifies the relationship between motor skill (MS) performance and physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Methods: Preschoolers (N = 227, age 3–5 y) were recruited from 22 preschools. Preschoolers’ MS (locomotor, object control, and total MS) were assessed with the Children’s Activity and Movement in Preschool Study MS protocol. PA was measured by accelerometry. Mixed linear models were used to examine the relationship of MS performance and body mass index (BMI) z score to PA. Models were adjusted for age, race, sex, and parent education, with preschool as a random effect. Results: There was a significant correlation between MS performance and PA (r = .14–.17, P < .05). A significant interaction was observed between BMI z score and object control, and between BMI z score and total MS score on PA (P = .03). Preschoolers with higher BMI z scores and high object control scores engaged in significantly (P = .03) more PA than preschoolers with lower BMI z scores and high object control scores (PA = 15.04 min/h and 13.54 min/h, respectively). Similarly, preschoolers with higher BMI z scores and high total MS scores spent significantly (P = .01) more time in PA compared with those with lower BMI z scores and high total MS scores (PA = 15.65 min/h and 13.91 min/h, respectively). Conclusion: Preschool children’s MS performance is positively correlated with PA, and BMI z score modified the relationship between MS performance and PA.

Restricted access

Vanesa España-Romero, Jonathan A. Mitchell, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill and Russell R. Pate

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sedentary behavior and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometry, with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 357 preschool children. Linear mixed models were used adjusting for race/ethnicity, parental education, and preschool. Follow-up analyses were performed using quantile regression. Among boys, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score (b = 0.080, p = .04) but not with waist circumference; quantile regression showed that MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score at the 50th percentile (b = 0.097, p < .05). Among girls, no associations were observed between sedentary behavior and MVPA in relation to mean BMI z-score and mean waist circumference. Quantile regression indicated that, among girls at the 90th waist circumference percentile, a positive association was found with sedentary behavior (b = 0.441, p < .05), and a negative association was observed with MVPA (b = −0.599, p < .05); no associations were found with BMI z-score. In conclusion, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score among boys, and MVPA was negatively associated and sedentary behavior was positively associated with waist circumference among girls at the 90th percentile.

Restricted access

Melinda Forthofer, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Cheryl L. Addy, Samantha McDonald, Lauren Reid and Russell R. Pate

Background: Gender differences in physical activity (PA) trajectories during adolescence are well documented, yet little research has examined whether the determinants of these trajectories vary by child’s gender. This study is one of few prospective examinations of gender differences in the influences of psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors on changes in objectively measured PA. Methods: Students and parents from elementary and middle schools located in 2 school districts in South Carolina were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of changes in children’s PA from elementary to middle school. Measures included children’s and/or parents’ ratings of various psychosocial and socioenvironmental factors as well as objectively measured PA, children’s anthropometric characteristics, and neighborhood factors at fifth and sixth grades. Results: Parents’ reports of children’s sport and class participation, parent-reported support for PA, and neighborhood resources for PA were protective against declines in PA for both boys and girls. The effects of 2 factors—children’s self-efficacy and parents’ leisure-time PA—on changes in PA over time were moderated by the child’s gender. Conclusions: A better understanding of these dynamics may inform the development of interventions.

Restricted access

Jennifer R. O’Neill, Angela D. Liese, Robert E. McKeown, Bo Cai, Steven P. Cuffe, Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, Richard F. Hamman and Dana Dabelea

In this study, the relationship between physical activity (PA) and 3 self-concept constructs (physical abilities, physical appearance, and general self-concept) was examined. Youth with type 1 diabetes (n = 304), type 2 diabetes (n = 49), and nondiabetic controls (n = 127) aged 10−20 years wore pedometers over 7 days. Youth completed the Self-Description Questionnaire and correlation coefficients were calculated. Mean steps/day were 7413 ± 3415, 4959 ± 3474 and 6870 ± 3521 for type 1, type 2 and control youth, respectively. Significant correlations were found between steps/day and perception of physical abilities (r = .29; r = .31; r = .31) for type 1, type 2, and control youth, respectively. The other correlations were not significant. Among youth with type 2 diabetes, steps/day were significantly correlated with physical appearance (r = .46). The positive correlation between PA and physical abilities suggests a reciprocal relationship between behavior and perception.