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Jennifer R. O’Neill, Russell R. Pate and Michael W. Beets

Background:

The aims of this study were to describe the physical activity levels of girls during dance classes and to identify factors associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in those classes.

Methods:

Participants were 137 girls (11 to 18 years-old) enrolled in ballet, jazz, or tap dance classes from 11 dance studios. Participants wore an accelerometer during the selected dance class on 2 separate days. Factors hypothesized to be associated with MVPA were dance style, instructional level, instructor’s experience, percent of class time spent in choreography, and participants’ age, race/ethnicity, BMI-for-age percentile, and years of dance training. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models.

Results:

Girls engaged in 9.8 minutes of MVPA, 6.0 minutes of moderate, 3.8 minutes of vigorous, 39.3 minutes of light, and 10.9 minutes of sedentary behavior per hour of dance class participation. Jazz/tap classes provided more MVPA than ballet classes, and intermediate level classes provided more MVPA than advanced level classes. Girls with more dance training obtained more MVPA than girls with less dance training.

Conclusion:

Dance classes provide valuable opportunities for adolescent girls to be physically active.

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Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell and Aaron J. Coutts

The National Basketball Association (NBA) has an extremely demanding competition schedule, requiring its athletes to compete in 82 regular-season games over a 6-mo period (∼3.4 games/wk). Despite the demanding schedule and high value of athletes, there is little public information on the specific game and training demands required to compete in the NBA. Although provisions in the NBA collective-bargaining agreement allow for research designed to improve player health and broaden medical knowledge, such information is sparse in the available literature. In relation to the physical demands of the NBA, the current lack of information likely results from multiple factors including limited understanding of (basketball-related) emerging technologies, impact of specific league rules, and steps taken to protect players in the age of Big Data. This article explores current limitations in describing specific game/training demands in the NBA and provides perspectives on how some of these challenges may be overcome. The authors propose that future collaborations between league entities, NBA clubs, commercial partners, and outside research institutions will enhance understanding of the physical demands in the NBA (and other health- and performance-related areas). More detailed understanding of physical demands (games, practices, and travel) and other health-related areas can augment player-centered decision making, leading to enhanced player care, increased availability, and improved physical performance.

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Russell R. Pate, Jennifer L. Gay, David R. Brown and Michael Pratt

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Keith Brazendale, Michael William Beets, Robert Glenn Weaver, Jennifer Huberty, Aaron E. Beighle and Russell R. Pate

Background:

Afterschool programs (ASPs) can provide opportunities for children to accumulate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The optimal amount of time ASPs should allocate for physical activity (PA) on a daily basis to ensure children achieve policystated PA recommendations remains unknown.

Methods:

Children (n = 1248, 5 to 12 years) attending 20 ASPs wore accelerometers up to 4 nonconsecutive week days for the duration of the ASPs during spring 2013 (February–April). Daily schedules were obtained from each ASP.

Results:

Across 20 ASPs, 3 programs allocated ≤ 30min, 5 approximately 45 min, 4 60 min, 4 75 min, and 4 ≥ 105 min for PA opportunities daily (min·d-1). Children accumulated the highest levels of MVPA in ASPs that allocated ≥ 60 min·d-1 for PA opportunities (24.8–25.1 min·d-1 for boys and 17.1–19.4 min·d-1 for girls) versus ASPs allocating ≤ 45 min·d-1 for PA opportunities (19.7 min·d-1 and 15.6 min·d-1 for boys and girls, respectively). There were no differences in the amount of MVPA accumulated by children among ASPs that allocated 60 min·d-1 (24.8 min·d-1 for boys and 17.1 min·d-1 for girls), 75 min·d-1 (25.1 min·d-1 for boys and 19.4 min·d-1 for girls) or ≥ 105 min·d-1 (23.8 min·d-1 for boys and 17.8 min·d-1 for girls). Across ASPs, 26% of children (31% for boys and 14% for girls) met the recommended 30 minutes of MVPA.

Conclusions:

Allocating more than 1 hour of PA opportunities is not associated with an increase in MVPA during ASPs. Allocating 60 min·d-1, in conjunction with enhancing PA opportunities, can potentially serve to maximize children’s accumulation of MVPA during ASPs.

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Cheryl L. Addy, Jennifer L. Trilk, Marsha Dowda, Won Byun and Russell R. Pate

The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum number of days of accelerometry required to estimate accurately MVPA and total PA in 3- to 5-year-old children. The study examined these metrics for all days, weekdays, and in-school activities. Study participants were 204 children attending 22 preschools who wore accelerometers for at least 6 hr per day for up to 12 days during most waking hours. The primary analysis considered the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each metric to estimate the number of days required to attain a specified reliability. The ICC estimates are 0.81 for MVPA-all days, 0.78 for total PA-all days, 0.83 for MVPA weekdays, 0.80 for total PA-weekdays, 0.81 for in-school MVPA, and 0.84 for in-school total PA. We recommend a full seven days of measurement whenever possible, but researchers can achieve acceptable reliability with fewer days, as indicated by the Spearman-Brown prophecy: 3–4 days for any weekday measure and 5–6 days for the all-days measures.

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Vanesa España-Romero, Jonathan A. Mitchell, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill and Russell R. Pate

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sedentary behavior and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometry, with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 357 preschool children. Linear mixed models were used adjusting for race/ethnicity, parental education, and preschool. Follow-up analyses were performed using quantile regression. Among boys, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score (b = 0.080, p = .04) but not with waist circumference; quantile regression showed that MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score at the 50th percentile (b = 0.097, p < .05). Among girls, no associations were observed between sedentary behavior and MVPA in relation to mean BMI z-score and mean waist circumference. Quantile regression indicated that, among girls at the 90th waist circumference percentile, a positive association was found with sedentary behavior (b = 0.441, p < .05), and a negative association was observed with MVPA (b = −0.599, p < .05); no associations were found with BMI z-score. In conclusion, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score among boys, and MVPA was negatively associated and sedentary behavior was positively associated with waist circumference among girls at the 90th percentile.

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Russell R. Pate, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill and Dianne S. Ward

Background:

Physical activity levels of girls decline in adolescence, but little is known about changes in participation in specific types of physical activity. This study examined change in participation in specific activities during adolescence in girls.

Methods:

Girls (N = 398, age 13.6 ± 0.6 y at baseline, 58.5% African American) from 31 middle and 24 high schools in South Carolina completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) in 8th, 9th, and 12th grades. Girls reported their predominant activity and its intensity level in each 30-min time block on the previous 3 d.

Results:

Vigorous physical activity declined from 45.4% in 8th grade to 34.1% in 12th grade. The probability of participating in several forms of vigorous physical activity in 12th grade was strongly associated with participation in those activities in 8th grade.

Conclusion:

Early-in-life participation in sports and other forms of vigorous physical activity are important to the maintenance of physical activity during adolescence in girls.

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Deborah B. Horn, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with physical activity (PA) in women during the first year following high school.

Methods:

Females from 22 high schools (n = 915) completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in 12th grade and reported if they were sports participants. After graduation, 305 women (18.9 ± 0.6 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. They reported time spent per day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) for the previous week. Multiple logistic regression was used to predict postgraduate PA.

Results:

The odds of being in the high-active group were greater in women who were sports participants (OR = 1.93) in 12th grade. The odds of being in the high-active group were greater among white women (OR = 2.09) and greater among currently employed women compared with unemployed women (OR = 5.57). MVPA had borderline significance in the regression model.

Conclusion:

Sports participation and being currently employed predicted physical activity at postgraduation.

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Haixia Guo, Michaela A. Schenkelberg, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Purpose: To determine if weight status modifies the relationship between motor skill (MS) performance and physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Methods: Preschoolers (N = 227, age 3–5 y) were recruited from 22 preschools. Preschoolers’ MS (locomotor, object control, and total MS) were assessed with the Children’s Activity and Movement in Preschool Study MS protocol. PA was measured by accelerometry. Mixed linear models were used to examine the relationship of MS performance and body mass index (BMI) z score to PA. Models were adjusted for age, race, sex, and parent education, with preschool as a random effect. Results: There was a significant correlation between MS performance and PA (r = .14–.17, P < .05). A significant interaction was observed between BMI z score and object control, and between BMI z score and total MS score on PA (P = .03). Preschoolers with higher BMI z scores and high object control scores engaged in significantly (P = .03) more PA than preschoolers with lower BMI z scores and high object control scores (PA = 15.04 min/h and 13.54 min/h, respectively). Similarly, preschoolers with higher BMI z scores and high total MS scores spent significantly (P = .01) more time in PA compared with those with lower BMI z scores and high total MS scores (PA = 15.65 min/h and 13.91 min/h, respectively). Conclusion: Preschool children’s MS performance is positively correlated with PA, and BMI z score modified the relationship between MS performance and PA.

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Jennifer R. O’Neill, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Background:

Little is known about the relationship between children’s physical activity (PA) in preschool (in-school) and outside of preschool (out-of-school). This study described this relationship.

Methods:

Participants were 341 children (4.6 ± 0.3 years) in 16 preschools. Accelerometers measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity (TPA) in-school and out-of-school. In the full sample, Pearson correlation was used to describe associations between in-school and out-of-school PA. In addition, children were categorized as meeting or not meeting a PA guideline during school. MVPA and TPA were compared between the 2 groups and in-school and out-of-school using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance.

Results:

In the full sample, in-school and out-of-school PA were positively correlated for MVPA (r = .13, P = .02) and TPA (r = .15, P = .01). Children who met the guideline in-school remained comparably active out-of-school. However, those who did not meet the guideline were more active out-of-school than in-school. The groups were active at comparable levels while out-of-school. Identical patterns were seen for MVPA and TPA.

Conclusions:

Children’s in-school PA was positively associated with out-of-school PA. Children who did not meet the guideline in-school were more active out-of-school than in-school, suggesting preschool and classroom factors may reduce some children’s PA in-school.