Speed of movement has been shown to affect the validity of physical activity (PA) monitors during locomotion. Speed of movement may also affect the validity of accelerometer-based PA monitors during other types of exercise. Purpose: To assess the ability of the Atlas Wearables Wristband2 (a PA monitor developed specifically for resistance training [RT] exercise) to identify the individual RT exercise type and count repetitions during RT exercises at various movement speeds. Methods: 50 male and female participants completed seven sets of 10 repetitions for five different upper/lower body RT exercises while wearing a Wristband2 on the left wrist. The speed of each set was completed at different metronome-paced speeds ranging from a slow speed of 4 sec·rep−1 to a fast speed of 1 sec·rep−1. Repeated Measures ANOVAs were used to compare the actual exercise type/number of repetitions among the seven different speeds. Mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and bias were calculated for repetition counting. Results: For each exercise, there tended to be significant differences between the slower speeds and the fastest speed for activity type identification and repetition counting (p < .05). Across all exercises, the highest accuracy for activity type identification (91 ± 1.8% correct overall), repetition counting (8.77 ± 0.17 of 10 reps overall) and the lowest MAPE (14 ± 1.7% overall) and bias (−1.23 ± 0.17 reps overall) occurred during the 1.5 sec·rep−1 speed (the second fastest speed tested). Conclusions: The validity of the Atlas Wearables Wristband2 to identify exercise type and count repetitions varied based on the speed of movement during RT exercises.
Scott A. Conger, Alexander H.K. Montoye, Olivia Anderson, Danielle E. Boss, and Jeremy A. Steeves
Jeremy A. Steeves, David R. Bassett, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, Hollie Raynor, Chi Cho, and Dixie L. Thompson
Physical activity (PA) is enjoyable, but there are barriers to participation. TV viewing is highly enjoyable with limited barriers. Exercising while viewing TV may impact enjoyment, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA, compared with exercising without TV.
58 sedentary, overweight adults were randomized to 1 of 2 PA prescriptions: one that increased PA during TV viewing (TV Commercial Stepping), and another that focused solely on PA (Walking). Random effects models tested changes in enjoyment of TV and PA, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA across time (baseline, 3, and 6 months) and PA prescription during a 6-month PA intervention.
At baseline, TV was more enjoyable than PA. Over the 6-month intervention, enjoyment of TV viewing did not change, but enjoyment of PA and exercise self-efficacy significantly increased, while barriers to PA significantly decreased for both groups compared with baseline (P < .05).
While enjoyment of TV viewing remained constant, PA became more enjoyable, confidence to exercise increased, and barriers to being active were reduced for previously sedentary adults participating in a behavioral PA intervention. These findings highlight the importance of encouraging inactive adults to engage in some form of PA, whether it occurs with or without TV viewing.
Jeremy A. Steeves, Brian M. Tyo, Christopher P. Connolly, Douglas A. Gregory, Nyle A. Stark, and David R. Bassett
This study compared the validity of a new Omron HJ-303 piezoelectric pedometer and 2 other pedometers (Sportline Traq and Yamax SW200).
To examine the effect of speed, 60 subjects walked on a treadmill at 2, 3, and 4 mph. Twenty subjects also ran at 6, 7, and 8 mph. To test lifestyle activities, 60 subjects performed front-back-side-side stepping, elliptical machine and stair climbing/descending. Twenty others performed ballroom dancing. Sixty participants completed 5 100-step trials while wearing 5 different sets of the devices tested device reliability. Actual steps were determined using a hand tally counter.
Significant differences existed among pedometers (P < .05). For walking, the Omron pedometers were the most valid. The Sportline overestimated and the Yamax underestimated steps (P < .05). Worn on the waist or in the backpack, the Omron device and Sportline were valid for running. The Omron was valid for 3 activities (elliptical machine, ascending and descending stairs). The Sportline overestimated all of these activities, and Yamax was only valid for descending stairs. The Omron and Yamax were both valid and reliable in the 100-step trials.
The Omron HJ-303, worn on the waist, appeared to be the most valid of the 3 pedometers.
Alexander H.K. Montoye, Scott A. Conger, Joe R. Mitrzyk, Colby Beach, Alecia K. Fox, and Jeremy A. Steeves
Background: Resistance training (RT) is an integral component of physical activity guidelines, but methods for the objective assessment of RT have been limited. Recently, the Atlas Wearables Wristband2 has been marketed to measure RT, but its reliability is unknown. Purpose: To determine the reliability of the Wristband2 for measuring RT exercises. Methods: Participants (n = 62) aged 18–52 yrs. wore two Wristband2 monitors on the left wrist and performed 2 sets of 12 repetitions of 14 different resistance training exercises. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculating percent agreement for exercise type and for repetitions recorded by a single Wristband2 between sets 1 and 2 for each exercise, and inter-monitor reliability was determined by calculating percent agreement for exercise type and for repetitions recorded by both Wristband2 monitors in set 1 of each exercise. Results: Test-retest reliability for exercise type was 80.0 ± 1.0% (lowest: 69.4% for bench press; highest: 95.2% for biceps curls) and for repetition count was 47.9 ± 2.2% (lowest: 19.4% for calf raises; highest: 82.3% for lateral raises). Inter-monitor reliability for exercise type was 80.4 ± 1.3% (lowest: 66.1% for bench press; highest: 95.2% for biceps curls) and for repetition count was 59.6 ± 2.2% (lowest: 32.3% for calf raises; highest: 88.7% for lateral raises). Subgroup analyses by gender, RT experience, and participant height revealed minimal differences in reliability. Repetition agreement of ≤1 repetition increased test-retest reliability to 74.7% and inter-monitor reliability to 83.7%. Conclusion: The Wristband2 had acceptable test-retest and inter-monitor reliability for the majority of exercises tested and for counting repetitions to within 1 repetition/set.
Jeremy A. Steeves, Scott A. Conger, Joe R. Mitrzyk, Trevor A. Perry, Elise Flanagan, Alecia K. Fox, Trystan Weisinger, and Alexander H.K. Montoye
Background: Devices for monitoring physical activity have focused mainly on measuring aerobic activity; however, the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans also recommend muscle-resistance training two or more days per week. Recently, a wrist-worn activity monitor, the Atlas Wristband2, was developed to recognize resistance training exercises. Purpose: To assess the ability of the Wristband2 to identify the type and number of repetitions of resistance training exercises, when worn on the left wrist as directed by the manufacturer, and when worn on the right wrist. Methods: While wearing monitors on both wrists, 159 participants completed a circuit-style workout consisting of two sets of 12 repetitions of 14 different resistance training exercises. Data from the monitors were used to determine classification accuracies for identifying exercise type verses direct observation. The average repetitions and mean absolute error (MAE) for repetitions were calculated for each exercise. Results: The Wristband2 classification accuracy for exercise type was 78.4 ± 2.5%, ranging from 54.7 ± 3.4% (dumbbell [DB] bench press) to 97.5 ± 1.0% (DB biceps curls), when worn on the left wrist. An average of 11.0 ± 0.2 repetitions, ranging from 9.0 ± 0.3 repetitions (DB lunges) to 11.9 ± 0.1 repetitions (push-ups), were identified. For all exercises, MAE ranged from 0.0–4.6 repetitions. When worn on the right wrist, exercise type classification accuracy dropped to 24.2 ± 5.1%, and repetitions decreased to 8.1 ± 0.8 out of 12. Conclusions: The Wristband2, worn on the left wrist, had acceptable exercise classification and repetition counting capabilities for many of the 14 exercises used in this study, and may be a useful tool to objectively track resistance training.
Jeremy A. Steeves, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Rachel A. Murphy, George A. King, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, David R. Bassett, Dane Van Domelen, John M. Schuna Jr, and Tamara B. Harris
Background: Little is known about the daily physical activity (PA) levels of people employed in different occupational categories. Methods: Nine ActiGraph accelerometer-derived daily PA variables are presented and ranked for adults (N = 1465, 20–60 y) working in the 22 occupational categories assessed by NHANES 2005–2006. A composite score was generated for each occupational category by summing the rankings of 3 accelerometer-derived daily PA variables known to have strong associations with health outcomes (total activity counts [TAC], moderate to vigorous PA minutes per week in modified 10-minute bouts [MVPA 10], and percentage of time spent in sedentary activity [SB%]). Results: Classified as high-activity occupational categories, “farming, fishing, forestry,” and “building & grounds cleaning, maintenance” occupations had the greatest TAC (461 996 and 449 452), most MVPA 10 (149.6 and 97.8), most steps per day (10 464 and 11 602), and near the lowest SB% (45.2% and 45.4%). “Community, social services” occupations, classified as low-activity occupational categories, had the second lowest TAC (242 085), least MVPA 10 (12.1), fewest steps per day (5684), and near the highest SB% (64.2%). Conclusions: There is a strong association between occupational category and daily activity levels. Objectively measured daily PA permitted the classification of the 22 different occupational categories into 3 activity groupings.
Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Cheryl A. Howe, Dinesh John, Amanda Hickey, Jeremy Steeves, Scott Conger, Kate Lyden, Sarah Kozey-Keadle, Sarah Burkart, Sofiya Alhassan, David Bassett Jr, and Patty S. Freedson
Thirty-five percent of the activities assigned MET values in the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth were obtained from direct measurement of energy expenditure (EE). The aim of this study was to provide directly measured EE for several different activities in youth.
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 178 youths (80 females, 98 males) was first measured. Participants then performed structured activity bouts while wearing a portable metabolic system to directly measure EE. Steady-state oxygen consumption data were used to compute activity METstandard (activity VO2/3.5) and METmeasured (activity VO2/measured RMR) for the different activities.
Rates of EE were measured for 70 different activities and ranged from 1.9 to 12.0 METstandard and 1.5 to 10.0 METmeasured.
This study provides directly measured energy cost values for 70 activities in children and adolescents. It contributes empirical data to support the expansion of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.