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Maria Kosma, Rebecca Ellis, Bradley J. Cardinal, Jeremy J. Bauer and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

The study’s purpose was to identify the mediating role of intention and the stages of change (SOC) in physical activity (PA) over a 6-month period using two models (Theory of Planned Behavior [TPB] and TPB/SOC). Participants were 143 adults with physical disabilities (70.68% response rate; M age = 46.03). The TPB constructs, SOC (time 1), and PA (time 2) were assessed using standardized self-report questionnaires. Based on path analyses, attitude had the highest effect on intention and SOC followed by perceived behavioral control within both well-fit models. The variance in PA explained by the first (TPB) and second (TPB/SOC) models was 16% and 28% respectively. In the just identified model of TPB/SOC, the direct effect of SOC on physical activity remained strong (γsoc.pa = .45) and SOC approached full mediation through attitude. Health promotion interventions need to include both intention and behavior elements (SOC) reinforcing increased PA value and barrier elimination.

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Maria Kosma, Rebecca Ellis Gardner, Bradley J. Cardinal, Jeremy J. Bauer and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

A high proportion of individuals with disabilities remain physically inactive. Therefore, this study (web-based survey) investigated the relationships between the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and physical activity among 224 adults with physical disabilities (M age = 45.4 years, SD = 10.78, females = 71%). Additionally, the most important TTM predictors of the stages of change and physical activity were examined. Standardized self-report scales of the TTM constructs and physical activity were completed. The study findings supported the theorized relationships between the TTM constructs and physical activity. The behavioral and cognitive processes of change distinguished the stages of change. These two constructs and self-efficacy mostly predicted physical activity (R 2 total = .18). The assessment methodology of the TTM constructs needs to be revisited.

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Jeremy J. Bauer, Robyn K. Fuchs, Gerald A. Smith and Christine M. Snow

Drop landings increase hip bone mass in children. However, force characteristics from these landings have not been studied. We evaluated ground and hip joint reaction forces, average loading rates, and changes across multiple trials from drop landings associated with osteogenesis in children. Thirteen prepubescent children who had previously participated in a bone loading program volunteered for testing. They performed 100 drop landings onto a force plate. Ground reaction forces (GRF) and two-dimensional kinematic data were recorded. Hip joint reaction forces were calculated using inverse dynamics. Maximum GRF were 8.5 ± 2.2 body weight (BW). At initial contact, GRF were 5.6 ± 1.4 BW while hip joint reactions were 4.7 ± 1.4 BW. Average loading rates for GRF were 472 ± 168 BW/s. Ground reaction forces did not change significantly across trials for the group. However, 5 individuals showed changes in max GRF across trials. Our data indicate that GRF are attenuated 19% to the hip at the first impact peak and 49% at the second impact peak. Given the skeletal response from the drop landing protocol and our analysis of the associated force magnitudes and average loading rates, we now have a data point on the response surface for future study of various combinations of force, rate, and number of load repetitions for increasing bone in children.