The purpose was to investigate marketable features of the adapted physical education (APE) career in higher education. A total of 560 APE job openings (297 APE first priority and 263 APE second priority were identified from the Chronicle of Higher Education between 1975–1976 and 1997–1998. These data were analyzed by regression, chi-square, and descriptive statistics. The results indicate that the APE career is a growing employment market demanding candidates who specialize in APE to prepare in one or more other areas and encouraging candidates who specialize in other areas to minor in APE. The market shows that APE second priority openings increase more quickly than APE first priority openings. Personnel for the APE career in higher education appear to be in short supply.
Jiabei Zhang, Daniel Joseph and Michael Horvat
Jiabei Zhang, Michael Horvat and David L. Gast
It is imperative that teachers utilize effective and efficient instructional strategies to teach task-analyzed gross motor skills in physical education activities to individuals with severe disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the constant time delay procedure, which has been shown to be effective in teaching task-analyzed fine motor skills in daily living and safety activities. In this article, guidelines are presented for teaching task-analyzed gross motor skills to individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. These guidelines are based on a review of the constant time delay procedure reported in the special education literature and current research being conducted by the authors.
Jiabei Zhang, Lee deLisle and Shihui Chen
The purpose of this study was to explore historical research trends in adapted physical activity by analyzing abstracts published under special populations by AAHPERD conventions from 1968 to 2004. There were 562 abstracts retrieved that were coded into seven categories: (a) number of authors, (b) data source, (c) sample size, (d) disability type, (e) data analysis, (f) type of study, and (g) focus of study. The coded data are presented as descriptive statistics and linear regression equations. The results of descriptive statistics describe an overall picture of the knowledge accumulation in adapted physical activity. The results of linear regression equations reveal a number of trends over the 37-year period. These trends suggest that adapted physical activity is a growing profession distinguished by several important research directions.
Jiabei Zhang, Debra Berkey, Luke Kelly, Daniel Joseph and Shihui Chen
The purpose was to develop a method for projecting the need for adapted physical education (APE) teachers in the public schools in the United States. This method was derived from a prevalence-based model—dividing the number of APE students enrolled by the APE student-teacher ratio and then subtracting the number of APE teachers hired. This model used the findings of Kelly and Gansneder (1998) that (a) 4% of the school population required APE services and (b) the overall national APE student-teacher ratio was 104:1. The results revealed a need for 22, 116 additional APE teachers nationwide as well as specific projections for each state. The prevalence-based projection method is recommended for policy makers at local, state, and national levels; for APE advocates; and for all concerned with APE personnel preparation and employment.
Shihui Chen, Ernest Lange, Paul Miko, Jiabei Zhang and Daniel Joseph
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the progressive time delay (PTD) procedure on teaching gross motor skills to adult males with severe mental retardation. A multiple probe design across three skills and replicated across 4 participants was utilized. Results indicated that a PTD procedure with a 0 to 5 s delay was effective in teaching 4 participants three gross motor skills (tee-ball batting, softball pitching, croquet striking) over a period of 13 weeks. Data on effectiveness were analyzed in terms of the number of instructional sessions (M = 9.58), the number of trials (M = 105.41), the number of min (M = 84.66), and the number of performing errors to criterion (M = 4.08%). A maintenance level (M = 96.87%) was also determined across 4 participants and three skills on the 1st, 4th, 14th, and 24th sessions after terminating the PTD instruction.