Purpose: Using Butler’s teacher achievement goal orientation as a conceptual framework, we developed this study to validate a teachers’ achievement goal instrument for teaching physical education. Methods: A sample of 322 Chinese physical education teachers participated in this study and completed measures of achievement goal orientations and job satisfaction for teaching physical education. Results: An exploratory factor analysis provided preliminary support with the instrument comprising four types of teachers’ orientation: mastery, ability-approach, ability-avoidance, and work-avoidance goals. A confirmatory factor analysis and multi-step invariance tests further corroborated the four-factor construct with acceptable reliabilities. Its predictive validity was also confirmed by the associations between job satisfaction and mastery goals and ability-approach goals. Discussion/Conclusion: Overall, the findings lend evidence to the conceptual validation of the structure of teachers’ goal orientations. It is suggested that physical education teachers’ individual differences in construing success be considered and instructionally addressed during teaching and learning.
Jian Wang, Bo Shen, Xiaobin Luo, Qingshan Hu and Alex C. Garn
Yong Gao, Haichun Sun, Jie Zhuang, Jian Zhang, Lynda Ransdell, Zheng Zhu and Siya Wang
This study determined the metabolic equivalents (METs) of several activities typically performed by Chinese youth.
Thirty youth (12 years) performed 7 activities that reflected their daily activities while Energy Expenditure (EE) was measured in a metabolic chamber.
METs were calculated as activity EE divided by participant’s measured resting metabolic rate. A MET value ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 was obtained for sleeping, watching TV, playing computer games, reading and doing homework. Performing radio gymnastics had a MET value of 2.9. Jumping rope at low effort required 3.1 METs. Except for watching TV, METs for other activities in this study were lower than Youth Compendium values.
The results provide empirical evidence for more accurately assessing EE of activities commonly performed by Chinese youth. This is the first study to determine METs for radio gymnastics and jump rope in Chinese youth.
Jie Liang, Shuang-Shuang Tian, Nan Qiao, Cong Wang, Jian-Jun Huang, Chen-Ming Sun, Hai-Xia Zhang, Yan Cui, Hui Wang, Xiao-Meng Liu, Shu-Hong Xu, Hongwei Guan and Tong Wang
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity (PA) in different domains among male coal miners of Shanxi Province in China.
The study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data regarding the general information of participants were collected by well-trained interviewers. MetS was defined according to IDF criteria. Self-reported PA was obtained with the IPAQ and categorized into three tertiles of intensity levels across occupation, transportation, household, and leisure-time domains. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to compute the odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval (CI).
A total of 3076 males aged 18–65 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MetS was 40.5% in the study subjects. The percentages of vigorous-intensity PA in MetS and non-MetS groups were 70.07% and 62.92%, respectively. Participants spent most of their time on occupation (2034 MET-min/w) and transportation (693MET-min/w) domains. Higher-intensity levels in occupation domains were significantly associated with lower risk of MetS (OR: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.633–0.911; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.516–0.762).
Across four types of workers, the relationships between PA domains and MetS were different. For underground and underground auxiliary workers, the negative relationship was found between occupation PA and MetS. For office workers, the negative relationship was found between household PA and MetS. For ground workers, only leisure-time PA had positively related to MetS.