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Ji-Hyun Lee and Tae-Lim Yoon

Context: Kinesiology tape (KT), multidirectional resistance exercise, and interventions for decreased ankle dorsiflexion range of motion are gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of combined interventions in patients with CAI. Objectives: To compare the effects of KT alone, KT with resistance exercise (KT + resistance), and KT with resistance and heel raise-lower exercise (KT + resistance + heel) on the results of the dynamic balance test (star excursion balance test [SEBT]), functional performance (lateral step-down test), and ankle muscle activation in patients with CAI. Design and Setting: This study used a repeated-measures design in a laboratory setting. Main Outcome Measures: The participants completed 3 different interventions with a 24-hour rest period between interventions. The SEBT, lateral step-down test, and ankle muscle activation results were used as the outcome measures. All outcomes were assessed before and immediately after the 3 interventions. Results: The results of the SEBT-anteromedial direction significantly increased with KT + resistance (78.61 [16.11] cm, P = .01, ES = 0.50) and KT + resistance + heel (76.94 [16.00] cm, P = .03, ES = 0.33) in comparison with the baseline values (73.68 [12.84] cm). Additionally, the result of the SEBT-anteromedial direction was significantly greater with KT + resistance (78.61 [16.11] cm) than with KT alone (76.00 [14.90] cm, P = .05, ES = 0.18). The number of errors during the lateral step-down test was significantly lower for the KT alone (2.16 [0.90] errors, P = .02, ES = 0.46), KT + resistance (2.10 [0.79] errors, P = .01, ES = 0.54), and KT + resistance + heel (2.03 [0.75] errors, P = .003, ES = 0.61) interventions than the baseline values (2.55 [0.85] errors). Conclusions: Patients with CAI should be encouraged to perform KT +resistance to improve balance.

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Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee and Sukho Lee

Background: Children and youths from low-income families and certain ethnic minority groups show high levels of risk and vulnerability to physical inactivity. The aim of this review was to examine the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) in children and youths from low-income and ethnic minority (LIEM) families. Methods: Eight databases were systematically searched for PA interventions for LIEM children and youths. Twenty-six studies were included in the analyses. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated using a random-effects model. The ESs were computed using Hedges g with 95% confidence interval. Results: There were small to medium effects of interventions on PA in LIEM children and youth (Q = 1499.193, df = 30, P < .05; I 2 = 97.999). Analyses on the moderator variables showed that ES for participants aged 9–12 years (ES = 0.542, P = .01); intervention length less than 13 weeks (ES = 0.561, P = .01); specialists as the intervention agent (ES = 0.680, P < .05); interventions without technology (ES = 0.363, P = .02); and interventions with a behavioral modification component (ES = 0.336, P = .03) were significantly different from zero. Conclusion: PA intervention can be an effective strategy to increase PA for LIEM children and youths.

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Justin A. Haegele, Jihyun Lee and David L. Porretta

In the article by Haegele, J.A., Lee, L., and Porretta, D.L., “Research trends in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly from 2004 to 2013”, in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 32(3), 187–205, an incorrect DOI was printed. The correct DOI for that article is http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.2014-0232.

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Justin A. Haegele, Jihyun Lee and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this documentary analysis was to examine trends in research published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) over a 10-yr span. A total of 181 research articles published from 2004 to 2013 were coded and analyzed using the following categories: first-author country affiliation, theoretical framework, intervention, research methods, disability categories, and topical focus. Results indicate high frequencies of nonintervention and group-design studies, as well as a low frequency of studies that describe a theoretical or conceptual framework. Trends in disability of participants and topical focus reflect current interests of researchers publishing in APAQ. While some scholars have suggested that changes in research on adapted physical activity would occur, the results of this analysis suggest that many of these categories remain largely unchanged for research published in APAQ. This study calls attention to similarities between the results of the current analysis and previous ones.

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Chang-Hee Ko, Heon-Seock Cynn, Ji-Hyun Lee, Tae-Lim Yoon and Sil-Ah Choi

Context:

Scapular bracing can correct scapular kinematics and restore normal scapular-muscle activity. However, there is little evidence to support the beneficial effects of a figure-8 strap, a type of scapular bracing, on muscle length, scapular alignment, and muscle activity during arm-lifting exercise.

Objective:

To investigate the immediate effect of a figure-8 strap on pectoralis minor length, scapular alignment, and scapular upward-rotator-muscle activity.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Participants:

Fifteen male participants (age 22.1 ± 1.9 y, weight 68.2 ± 5.7 kg, height 176.2 ± 3.3 cm) with forward shoulder posture (FSP) were examined for pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment with and without the application of a figure-8 strap.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pectoralis minor length was measured using the Pectoralis Minor Index (PMI), scapular alignment was measured with FSP, and upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscle activity were measured using surface electromyography while participants performed an arm-lifting exercise. Data collected with and without applying a figure-8 strap were compared using a paired t-test.

Results:

Applying a figure-8 strap significantly decreased the PMI (P = .005) and scapular anterior tilting (P = .000). There were no differences in the muscle activity of the upper trapezius (P = .784), lower trapezius (P = .241), and serratus anterior muscles (P = .639).

Conclusions:

A figure-8 strap resulted in positive changes in pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment. The results support its use as a treatment aid in managing pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment during arm-lifting exercises.

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Ji-hyun Lee, Heon-seock Cynn, Sil-ah Choi, Tae-lim Yoon and Hyo-jung Jeong

Context:

Gluteus medius (Gmed) weakness is associated with some lower-extremity injuries. People with Gmed weakness might compensate by activating the tensor fasciae latae (TFL). Different hip rotations in the transverse plane may affect Gmed and TFL muscle activity during isometric side-lying hip abduction (SHA).

Objectives:

To compare Gmed and TFL muscle activity and the Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio during SHA exercise with 3 different hip rotations.

Design:

The effects of different hip rotations on Gmed, TFL, and the Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio during isometric SHA were analyzed with 1-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

20 healthy university students were recruited in this study.

Interventions:

Participants performed isometric SHA: frontal SHA with neutral hip (frontal SHAN), frontal SHA with hip medial rotation (frontal SHA-MR), and frontal SHA with hip lateral rotation (frontal SHA-LR).

Main Outcome Measures:

Surface electromyography measured the activity of the Gmed and the TFL. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance assessed the statistical significance of Gmed and TFL muscle activity. When there was a significant difference, a Bonferroni adjustment was performed.

Results:

Frontal SHA-MR showed significantly greater Gmed muscle activation than frontal SHA-N (P = .000) or frontal SHA-LR (P = .015). Frontal SHA-LR showed significantly greater TFL muscle activation than frontal SHA-N (P = .002). Frontal SHA-MR also resulted in a significantly greater Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio than frontal SHA-N (P = .004) or frontal SHA-LR (P = .000), and frontal SHA-N was significantly greater than frontal SHA-LR (P = .000).

Conclusions:

Frontal SHA-MR results in greater Gmed muscle activation and a higher Gmed:TFL muscle ratio.