Purpose: The purpose of this study was two-fold: to examine the motivational profiles of secondary school students in physical education classes, and to examine the associations between the students’ motivational profile characteristics and positive and negative affective experiences. Methods: A total of 1,570 students from Hong Kong were invited to complete four questionnaires: the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale, the Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale in Physical Education, The Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, and the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form. A two-step cluster analysis was performed to explore the motivational profiles while MANOVAs were conducted to examine the criterion validity of the cluster analysis and differences on affective outcomes between motivational profiles. Results: Four motivational profiles were identified: non-self-determined, moderate controlled and low autonomous (Mod C-Low AU), high controlled and moderate autonomous (High C-Mod AU), and self-determined. The results revealed that students in different profiles reported different affective experiences. Conclusion: Motivational profiles based on self-determination theory may be better explained from a psychological needs perspective, and students in different profiles may undergo different affective experiences.
Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung
Jing Dong Liu and Pak-kwong Chung
The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs thwarting (frustration) in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, PNTSPE). Secondary school students (grades 7–9) from Hong Kong (N = 1258) were invited to participate in three studies. In Study 1, item generation and initial content validity of the PNTSPE were achieved. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the measure was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were also examined. In Study 3, the reliability and validity of the scores derived from the PNTSPE were further examined in an independent sample. Overall, the findings from the three studies provided initial psychometric evidence for the PNTSPE and suggested that the PNTSPE could be used as a valid and reliable measure to assess Hong Kong secondary school students’ psychological needs thwarting in physical education.
Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, Tin-Lok Yuen, Jing Dong Liu and Donggen Wang
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the 24-item Social Environment Questionnaire (SEQ-C). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the factor validity and measurement invariance (Purpose 1) of the SEQ-C in 453 older adults in Hong Kong. Convergent validity (Purpose 2) and test–retest reliability (Purpose 3) were also measured. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance supported the four-factor structure (representing companionship, encouragement, neighborhood social cohesion, and role models) of the SEQ-C, in a 15-item model that closely fitted the data. The SEQ-C was also found to have acceptable to satisfactory internal consistency, test–retest reliability, composite reliability, and moderate convergent validity in correlating perceived social support. This study showed that the SEQ-C is a suitable means of measuring the social environments of older adults in Hong Kong.
Yucui Diao, Cuixiang Dong, Lisa M. Barnett, Isaac Estevan, Jing Li and Liu Ji
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) in Chinese children. A total of 241 children (girls, n = 119) aged 4 to 9 years old (6.9 ± 1.53) participated. One week later two random subsamples were selected. One (n = 52) was to determine face validity and the other (n = 56) was to determine test-retest reliability. Internal consistency analyses through Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. Results showed (a) face validity was better for object control skills; (b) internal consistency was adequate for each subscale and all 13 skills (alpha range from .73–.87); (c) Intra-Class Correlations were good for locomotor (.62), object control (.73), and all 13 skills (.78); and (d) the modified two-factor model had a good fit (CFI = .96, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). The Chinese version of the PMSC is appropriate to use; however, considering the participants were only from Shanghai, results may not be generalizable to all Chinese children.