This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.
Lijuan Wang, Jing Qi and Lin Wang
Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola and Jing Wang
Purpose: Using 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey data, the authors conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis to examine the associations of movement behaviors (ie, physical activity [PA] and screen-based sedentary behaviors) and fundamental motor skills (FMS) with fitness (ie, muscular fitness) and fatness (ie, body mass index and waist circumference) in 3- to 5-year-old children. The effect of ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic) on these associations was also examined. Methods: A total of 352 children (173 girls; mean age = 4.02 y) from the 2012 NHANES data set were included. Parents reported their child’s PA and screen-based sedentary behaviors. FMS (ie, locomotor and object control) were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition. Other variables used were body mass index, waist circumference, and plank. Results: Hispanic children demonstrated lower levels of PA than non-Hispanic children (P < .05). Children’s FMS emerged as significant predictors of muscular fitness and waist circumference, but not for body mass index in the Hispanic group. In the non-Hispanic group, FMS (ie, object control skills) and PA accounted for significant variances of muscular fitness and waist circumference, respectively. Conclusion: The associations of movement behaviors and FMS with fitness and fatness are different between Hispanic and non-Hispanic young children. Changes in policy or early childhood curriculum may be tailed to promote FMS for an impact on fitness and fatness in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic children.
Dana M. Litt, Ronald J. Iannotti and Jing Wang
Motivating adolescents to maintain levels of physical activity (PA) is important because regular PA in adolescence contributes to physical, psychological, and social well-being and PA during adolescence has been associated with activity levels in adulthood.
The overall aim of this study is to validate a measure of external reward, health values, and personal interest motivations for adolescent PA developed by Wold and Kannas and to examine the relationship between these motivations and level of PA.
A nationally representative sample of 9011 adolescents completed the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey instrument. Ten items were used to measure PA motivations. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were applied to test the 3-factor structure of the motivation scale and to examine the relationship between the 3 motivations and PA.
The Wold and Kannas’s motivation measure assessed external, social, and health motivations which predicted PA in adolescents.
The Wold and Kannas’s motivation measure is suitable for assessing motivations for PA in US adolescents and may contribute to both theoretical and intervention studies that address this public health need.
Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, Tin-Lok Yuen, Jing Dong Liu and Donggen Wang
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the 24-item Social Environment Questionnaire (SEQ-C). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the factor validity and measurement invariance (Purpose 1) of the SEQ-C in 453 older adults in Hong Kong. Convergent validity (Purpose 2) and test–retest reliability (Purpose 3) were also measured. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance supported the four-factor structure (representing companionship, encouragement, neighborhood social cohesion, and role models) of the SEQ-C, in a 15-item model that closely fitted the data. The SEQ-C was also found to have acceptable to satisfactory internal consistency, test–retest reliability, composite reliability, and moderate convergent validity in correlating perceived social support. This study showed that the SEQ-C is a suitable means of measuring the social environments of older adults in Hong Kong.
Ying Sun, Jing An, Xi Wang, Ping Zu and Fang-Biao Tao
The study aims to understand the possible gender difference in the associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms during pubertal transition.
Participants were 30,399 children and adolescents of Han ethnicity from urban and rural areas in 8 cities in China. Physical activity (PA) and depressive symptom was assessed by adapted Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Children Depression Inventory (CDI), respectively. Pubertal development was assessed by trained physicians.
In China, over 30% boys and 40% girls reported having no vigorous PA (VPA) or moderate PA (MPA) in the past week. In girls, participating in VPA 1 to 2 days/week showed protective effect for depressive symptoms; whereas in boys, participating in MPA 1 to 2 days/week showed protective effect for depressive symptoms at and after genital stage III (G3).
Moderate frequency (1 to 2 days/week) in PA undertaken might be encouraged to prevent depressive symptoms among adolescents.