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Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris

This article explores the role of knowledge and understanding in fostering physical literacy, which is considered fundamental to successful participation in physical activity, and to valuing and taking responsibility for engaging in physical activities for life. First, it highlights the place and importance of knowledge and understanding within the broad concept, cognitive domain, and attributes of physical literacy. The type, scope, and progression of knowledge and understanding deemed necessary to foster physical literacy are then explored, with attention paid to knowledge of health within the school context in particular. To conclude, the article outlines selected pedagogical approaches and practical strategies for developing and monitoring such knowledge and understanding.

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Lorraine Cale, Jo Harris and Ming-Hung Chen

This article represents a response to an editorial piece written in Pediatric Exercise Science over 10 years ago by Thomas Rowland in which he debated fitness testing and asked whether the “horse” of fitness testing in schools was dead. Here, the authors revisit the debate and consider the progress that has been made with regard to fitness testing in schools in recent years. On the basis of findings from the literature and some of their research, the authors suggest that accepting the fact that the horse is dead would not be a bad thing. Their advice is certainly to pull tightly on the reigns, slow the horse down, and not allow fitness testing to dominate schools’ efforts to promote physical activity.