Sport and exercise focused research is reviewed stemming from a goal perspective model of motivation. It is suggested that this body of literature provides insight into the variability in physical activity patterns among girls and women. Further, evidence is presented which indicates that differences in the goal perspectives operating in the athletic setting relate to whether female athletic participation is health promotive or health endangering.
Joan L. Duda
The purpose of this paper is to review Nicholls' developmentally based theory of achievement motivation and apply this perspective to children's sport. Five areas of research are reviewed that support the relevance of Nicholls' theory to the sport domain. Based on Nicholls' framework, several considerations are presented for future research on the development of achievement motivation in sport.
Joan L. Duda
This study examined the relationship between an athlete's goal perspective (i.e., task or ego orientation) and the perceived purpose of sport among male and female high school athletes. The sport-specific measure of task and ego orientation was found to have a stable factor structure and high internal consistency. Factor analysis of the Purpose of Sport Questionnaire revealed seven factors: sport should (a) teach the value of mastery and cooperation, (b) show people how to be physically active for life, (c) make good citizens, (d) make people competitive, (e) help individuals obtain a high status career, (f) enhance self-esteem, and (g) show people how to get ahead and increase their social status. Results indicated that the importance placed on skill mastery and personal improvement in sport (task orientation) positively related to the beliefs that sport should enhance self-esteem and teach people to try their test, cooperate, and be good citizens. Ego orientation was a positive predictor of the view that sport involvement should enhance one's self-esteem and social status.
Maria Newton and Joan L. Duda
The present study examined the perceived causes of success among elite adolescent tennis players and investigated the function of gender in the interdependence of goal orientation and beliefs concerning tennis achievement. Male and female adolescents (N = 121) completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) specific to tennis and a questionnaire tapping beliefs about success in this sport. Factor analyses revealed two conceptually coherent personal goal-belief dimensions for the females. The first was comprised of ego orientation and the beliefs that ability and maintaining a positive impression were the primary causes of success. The second consisted of a task orientation coupled with the belief that effort and a de-emphasis on external factors and deceptive tactics would lead to tennis accomplishment. In the case of males, an ego goal-belief dimension emerged. The motivational implications of assuming these differing goal-beliefs in youth sport is discussed.
Anne Beuter and Joan L. Duda
The purpose of this interdisciplinary study was to assess the impact of arousal on motor performance by examining the kinematic characteristics of a stepping motion in high and low arousal conditions on 9 subjects. Raw data were recorded from a rotary shutter video camera and digitized automatically by interfacing the videomotion analyzer with the digitizing board of a microcomputer. Three-dimensional orbital plots of the hip, knee, and ankle angle covariations revealed that the subjects used two different strategies to perform the skill. Phase plane analyses revealed a tight coupling between joint position and velocity in both conditions for the hip and the knee. Differences in movement kinematics between low and high arousal conditions were most visible in the ankle joint whose phase planes displayed an increased number of self-crossings (loops) in the high arousal condition. It was suggested that under high arousal, what was once automatic and smooth in terms of the ankle joint now comes under more volitional control, which is less smooth and efficient. Practical implications of the present study are suggested.
Michael Reinboth and Joan L. Duda
Grounded in achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the perceived motivational climate and perceptions of ability to indices of psychological and physical well-being among male adolescents taking part in team sports. Participants were 265 adolescent soccer and cricket players. Reported self-esteem was the lowest among low perceived ability athletes participating in an environment that was perceived to be high in its ego-involving features, but high among athletes perceiving a highly task-involving environment regardless of their perceptions of competence. Contingent self-esteem, physical exhaustion, and reported physical symptoms were positively predicted by perceptions of an ego-involving climate. The results suggest that an examination of variations in the perceived motivational climate may provide further insight into whether sport participation can be health promotive or potentially damaging to athletes’ welfare.
Eleanor Quested and Joan L. Duda
Grounded in the basic needs mini-theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study examined the interplay among perceptions of the social environment manifested in vocational dance schools, basic need satisfaction, and indices of elite dancers’ well- and ill-being. The hypothesized mediating role of need satisfaction was also tested. Dancers (N = 392) completed a questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which perceptions of task-involving dance environments positively predicted need satisfaction. Perceived ego-involving climates negatively corresponded with competence and relatedness. Perceptions of autonomy support were positively related to autonomy and relatedness. Need satisfaction positively predicted positive affect. Competence and relatedness satisfaction corresponded negatively to reported negative affect. Emotional and physical exhaustion was not related to need satisfaction. Partial support emerged for the assumed mediation of the needs. Results highlight the relevance of task-involving and autonomy-supportive dance climates for elite dancers’ need satisfaction and healthful engagement in vocational dance.
Joan L. Duda and Harry L. Hom Jr.
This study examined the interrelationships between young athletes’ and parents’ personal and perceived goal orientations in sport. Forty-three boys and 34 girls who were involved in a summer basketball camp completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) with respect to their own dispositional goal perspective in basketball and their perceptions of the goal orientation of the parent who was most involved with their basketball participation. The parents (55 mothers and 21 fathers) responded to the TEOSQ in tenns of their personal goal orientation and their perceptions of the goal orientation held by their child in basketball. Results revealed no significant correlations between children’s and parents’ self-reported task and ego orientation. Children’s goal orientation was significantly related to their views concerning the goal orientation adopted by their patents. The implications of these findings for understanding the socialization of sport goal orientations are discussed.
Sally A. White and Joan L. Duda
This study examined the existence and nature of dispositional goal orientations and perceived reasons for sport success among adolescent disabled athletes. Also, the interdependence between personal goals and views about the determinants of sport achievement was determined. Fifty-nine athletes with physical disabilities completed the 13-item Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire specific to wheelchair basketball and a 21-item questionnaire concerning beliefs about the causes of sport success. Factor analyses revealed two distinct goal-belief dimensions. The first dimension indicated that task orientation was associated with the views that practice, exerted effort, and external factors lead to success. The second dimension suggested that ego orientation was coupled with the beliefs that ability, chance, taking an illegal advantage, or all three result in accomplishment in sport. The present findings are contrasted with previous classroom research and studies of able-bodied sport participants, and their implications for the understanding of motivation are provided.
Joan L. Duda and Sally A. White
The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship between goal orientations and beliefs about the causes of success among elite athletes and to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) in high-level competitive sport. Male and female intercollegiate skiers (N=143) completed the TEOSQ specific to skiing and a questionnaire assessing their perceptions of the determinants of success in skiing. Factor analysis of the TEOSQ revealed two independent subscales that demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Task orientation was positively linked with the beliefs that skiing success is a result of hard work, superior ability, and selecting activities that one can perform successfully, and ego orientation to the beliefs that taking an illegal advantage, possessing high ability, selecting tasks that one can accomplish, and external variables are reasons for skiing success. Factor analysis of the two goal orientation and four belief scale scores revealed two divergent goal/belief dimensions in competitive skiing.