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James L. Seale, Robert S. VanZant and Joan M. Conway

Fifteen adult male volunteers were assigned to sedentary, moderately strength-trained, and moderately endurance-trained groups (5 per group) to determine the effect of exercise training on energy expenditure (EE). Subjects were matched for age, weight, and height. Group appointments were based on activity questionnaires and American College of Sports Medicine standards. Subjects consumed a mixed diet of 40% fat, 20% protein, and 40% carbohydrate at weight maintenance intake for 3 weeks while continuing their exercise training programs. There was no significant difference between groups for 24-hr EE measured in the controlled environment of a room-sized calorimeter. Free-living EE measured with H2218O in endurance- and strength-trained groups was significantly higher (19.4% and 35.1%, respectively) than in the sedentary group. Moderate endurance and strength training increased free-living EE but did not affect 24-hr EE when groups followed standardized activity schedules. These results suggest that increased EE caused by moderate exercise training is limited to the energy required to complete the exercise.

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Neil A. Doldo, Matthew J. Delmonico, Jason A. Bailey, Brian D. Hand, Matthew C. Kostek, Karma M. Rabon-Stith, Kalapurakkal S. Menon, Joan M. Conway, Craig R. Carignan and Ben F. Hurley

To determine sex and race differences in muscle power per unit of muscle contraction, knee-extensor muscle power normalized for knee-extensor muscle volume was measured in 79 middle-aged and older adults (30 men and 49 women, age range 50–85 years). Results revealed that women displayed a 38% faster peak movement velocity than men and African Americans had a 14% lower peak movement velocity than Whites of a similar age when expressed per unit of involved muscle (p < .001). As expected, men exhibited greater knee-extensor strength and peak power per unit of muscle than women, but women had a faster knee-extension movement velocity per unit of muscle than men at the same relative strength level. Moreover, African Americans had greater knee-extensor muscle volume than Whites but exhibited lower knee-extensor strength and lower movement velocity per unit of muscle when tested at the same relative strength levels.