The effect of a high (H) and a low (L) rate of post-exercise fluid consumption on plasma volume and fluid balance restoration was investigated. Eight well-trained cyclists were dehydrated at 3% of body weight (BW) by cycling at 28 °C. During the recovery period, they ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution in a volume equivalent to 120% of BW loss. Randomly, they ingested 60%, 40%, and 20% in the 1 st, 2nd, and 3rd hours of the recovery period, respectively (H), or 24% · h−1 during 5 hours (L). BW loss was similar for both trials and resulted in a total drink intake of 2.6 ± 0.1 kg. Urine output in H exceeded significantly that of L in the 2nd and 3rd hours. This was reversed in the 5th and 6th hours. Plasma volume and fluid balance increased more rapidly in H compared to L. After 6 hours this difference disappeared. It is concluded that H results in a faster rate of plasma volume and fluid balance restoration compared to L, despite a temporary large urine output.
Eva M.R. Kovacs, Regina M. Schmahl, Joan M.G. Senden and Fred Brouns
Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice is thought to have ergogenic effects, particularly in conditions where oxygen availability is limited. Whether these effects also apply to elite athletes is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of beetroot juice supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo players. In a double-blinded, randomized, crossover manner, the Dutch National female water polo team (N = 14) was subjected to two 6-day supplementation periods (1 and 2), with either 140 ml/day of nitrate-rich (BR; ∼800 mg/day nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (PLA) beetroot juice. Following blood sampling on Day 6, the athletes performed a maximal-distance front crawl swimming test without breathing (dynamic apnea test). In addition, intermittent sprint performance was assessed by performing 16 swim sprints of 15 m, in a 4 × 4 block with 30-s recovery between blocks (intermittent test). Distance covered during the dynamic apnea test did not differ between BR (49.5 ± 7.8 m) and PLA (46.9 ± 9.1 m, p = .178). However, when correcting for test order, the distance covered was significantly larger in BR versus PLA when BR was ingested in Period 2 (50.1 ± 8.5 vs. 42.8 ± 5.7 m, p = .002), whereas no difference was observed when BR was ingested in Period 1 (48.8 ± 7.4 vs. 52.3 ± 10.4 m, p = .10). The time to complete the intermittent test was not different between BR and PLA (316.0 ± 7.9 vs. 316.3 ± 6.9 s, p = .73). In conclusion, beetroot juice supplementation does not improve intermittent performance in elite female water polo players, but there may be a potential for ergogenic effects during dynamic apnea.