The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the substitute role in an attempt to uncover detailed understanding of soccer players’ experiences. Twenty soccer substitutes were individually interviewed. Inductive content analysis revealed that they experienced mainly negative organizational, person and competitive factors as substitutes, with fewer positive experiences. Organizational factors were: receiving short notice, segregation, poor coach communication, inactivity and restricted preparation. Person factors were: dissatisfaction with status, self-presentation and impression motivation concerns, reduced control over performance and coach’s decisions, reduced motivation to prepare, negative emotions and elevated state anxiety. Positive responses were: role acceptance, remaining focused, enthusiastic and confident and performing well. Sport psychologists, team-mates and coaches should be aware of these experiences and how they can help substitutes cope with their role.
Bernadette Woods and Joanne Thatcher
Joanne Thatcher, John Kerr, Kristy Amies and Melissa Day
Few studies have examined psychological and emotional processes in injury rehabilitation from a longitudinal, theoretically framed perspective.
This study explored the applicability of Reversal Theory to examine these processes.
University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.
Three severely injured athletes; two were female (karate and judo) and one was male (hockey), aged 20 to 28.
Main Outcome Measures:
Fortnightly interviews after participant’s initial consultation with a sports therapist, until complete physical rehabilitation.
Supported the use of Reversal Theory in this context (eg, as a means of understanding the origins of athletes’ emotional responses to injury and changes in these responses throughout rehabilitation).
Suggestions for future research are made (eg, examining the consequences of emotional and metamotivational states for athlete behavior and recovery outcomes during rehabilitation).
Jonathan R. Males, John H. Kerr, Joanne Thatcher and Emma Bellew
The present study investigated the psychological experiences of elite athletes in a team that failed using qualitative methods informed by reversal theory. Five athletes, from a national men’s volleyball team, playing in a European tournament completed a post-game review after each of 6 games. After the tournament, each player took part in in-depth semi-structured interviews, prompted by their post-game reviews. The results indicated that unrealistic expectations, poor team motivation, a negative coaching style, and faulty team process around game performance played an important role in the failure of this team. Also, inappropriate metamotivational states and state reversals were found to have had a negative impact on team performance. Several consultant recommendations for enhancing team motivation and functioning are identified.