A total of 100 boys and 91 girls, ages 11 to 16 years, completed a discontinuous treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion to determine the oxygen uptake/blood lactate relationship. Maturational stage was assessed in 72 boys and 47 girls using Tanner’s indices. Mean blood lactate at peak VO2 was significantly higher in the girls compared to the boys (6.1 vs. 5.8 mmol•l-1, P<0.01). Lactate at peak VO2 and percent peak VO2 at 4.0 mmol•l-1 were not significantly correlated with chronological age (p>0.05) in either sex, although a relationship was obtained between chronological age and percent peak VO2 at 2.5 mmol•l-“1 for boys (r= ‒0.226, p<.05) and girls (r= ‒0.272, p0.05). Analysis of variance revealed no significant changes (p>0.05) in any of the lactate variables examined with progression through the Tanner stages of maturity.
Joanne R. Williams and Neil Armstrong
Joanne L. Fallowfield and Clyde Williams
The influence of increased carbohydrate intake on endurance capacity was investigated following a bout of prolonged exercise and 22.5 hrs of recovery. Sixteen male subjects were divided into two matched groups, which were then randomly assigned to either a control (C) or a carbohydrate (CHO) condition. Both groups ran at 70% VO2max on a level treadmill for 90 min or until volitional fatigue, whichever came first (T1), and 22.5 hours later they ran at the same % VO2max for as long as possible to assess endurance capacity (T2). During the recovery, the carbohydrate intake of the CHO group was increased from 5.8 (±0.5) to 8.8 (±0.1) g kg-1 BW. This was achieved by supplementing their normal diet with a 16.5% glucose-polymer solution. An isocaloric diet was prescribed for the C group, in which additional energy was provided in the form of fat and protein. Run times over T1 did not differ between the groups. However, over T2 the run time of the C group was reduced by 15.57 min (p<0.05), whereas those in the CHO group were able to match their T1 performance. Blood glucose remained stable throughout Tl and T2 in both groups. In contrast, blood lactate, plasma FFA, glycerol, ammonia, and urea increased. Thus, a high carbohydrate diet restored endurance capacity within 22.5 hrs whereas an isocaloric diet without additional carbohydrate did not.
Joanne R. Williams and Neil Armstrong
This investigation set out to estimate exercise intensity and blood lactate corresponding to the maximal lactate steady state (MLaSS) and also examined the relationship between performance at the MLaSS with performance at fixed blood lactate reference values of 2.5 and 4.0 mmol•1−1. Cardiopulmonary responses at peak treadmill exercise and blood lactate reference values were measured in 10 boys and 8 girls ages 13-14 years. The 2.5 mmol•11 reference value represented 84±7% peak VO2 in boys and 82±6% peak VO2 in girls. Corresponding values at the 4.0 mmol•1−1 level were 93±6% and 90±5% peak VO2. MLaSS occurred at 77±7% peak VO2 in boys and 76±7% peak VO2 in girls. Blood lactate at the MLaSS was 2.1±0.5 mmol•l−1 in boys and 2.3±0.6 mmol•l−1 in girls. Cardiopulmonary and heart rate responses at the MLaSS were not significantly different from corresponding responses at the 2.5 mmol•l−1 reference value. In contrast, cardiopulmonary responses at the 4.0 mmol•l−1 reference level were significantly higher than those at the MLaSS. These data indicate that a 2.5 mmol•l−1 criterion for assessing aerobic performance in children may be the most appropriate.
Joanne Williams and Heidi M. Parker
Experiential learning has been widely used to impact student engagement and provide opportunities to apply theory to practice (Bower, 2013). Sport management faculty regularly use experiential learning in event management, sales classes and internships (Charlton, 2007; McKelvey & Southall, 2008). In addition, educators often include leadership development within their student learning outcomes (COSMA, 2014; MacKie, 2014). This study examines the effectiveness of leadership development activities implemented in an experiential event management course. A case study approach was selected to demonstrate in-depth development and analysis of the course and the integration of strengths-based leadership activities. Students completed the StrengthFinder assessment (Rath & Conchie, 2009), the Strengths Awareness Measure (Schreiner, 2004), and the Strengths of Self Efficacy Scale (Tsai et al., 2014). Significant increases in strengths awareness were reported along with generally high self-efficacy scores. Students reported positive perceptions of the experiential learning experience and increased levels of engagement.
Joanne L. Fallowfield and Clyde Williams
The present study examined the influence of ingesting 3.0 g CHO ·
Joanne L. Fallowfield, Clyde Williams, and Rabindar Singh
Recovery from prolonged exercise involves both rehydration and replenishment of endogenous carbohydrate stores. The present study examined the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) solution following prolonged running, on exercise capacity 4 hr later. Twelve men and 4 women were divided into two matched groups, which were randomly assigned to either a control (P) or a carbohydrate (CHO) condition. Both groups ran at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (
Neil Armstrong, John Balding, Peter Gentle, Joanne Williams, and Brian Kirby
The present study examined the relationship between peak V̇O2 and habitual physical activity in 11- to 16-year-old students. The peak V̇O2 of 111 girls and 85 boys was determined using treadmill or cycle ergometry. Habitual physical activity was estimated from minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring over three 12-hr periods during normal school days. Over half of the girls and one third of the boys failed to sustain a single 10-min period with their heart rate at or above 140 bpm. Only one boy sustained a daily 20-minute period with a heart rate at or above 160 bpm. During Saturday monitoring over 90% of the girls and 75% of the boys failed to sustain a single 10-min period with their heart rate at or above 140 bpm, and only one girl and four boys sustained a 20-min period with their heart rate at or above 160 bpm. No significant relationship was detected between peak V̇O2 and heart rate indicators of habitual physical activity. This study suggests that few children have periods of physical activity of sufficient intensity and duration to stress the cardiopulmonary system.
Neil Armstrong, Joanne Williams, John Balding, Peter Gentle, and Brian Kirby
The peak oxygen uptake (VO2) of 199 boys and 164 girls (mean age 13.2±1.3 yrs) was examined in relation to their body fatness, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol level. Peak VO2 was significantly correlated with skinfold thickness in both sexes (range r = −0.41 to −0.56). When the common effects of skinfold thickness were removed, no significant relationships were observed between peak VO2 and either serum cholesterol or blood pressure. The habitual physical activity (HPA) of 92 boys and 132 girls (mean age 13.0+1.3 yrs) was examined in relation to their body fatness, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. No significant relationships were observed. The results of this study indicate that although skinfold thickness is negatively related to peak VO2, favorable relationships between children’s peak VO2 or HPA and either blood pressure or serum cholesterol remain to be proven.
Athena Yiamouyiannis, Glenna G. Bower, Joanne Williams, Dina Gentile, and Heather Alderman
Accreditation and accountability in sport management education are necessary to ensure academic rigor and can serve as vehicles by which sport management educators examine and enhance the academic quality of their programs. This paper addresses this topic first with a discussion of the need for accreditation and a review of the accrediting agencies and other entities involved (CHEA, USDE, regional and specialized accrediting agencies, and state involvement). Next is a brief overview of COSMA’s accreditation process, and then a focus on direct learning outcomes and assessment tools. Becoming more familiar with the value and purpose of accreditation in general, as well as the specifics of the COSMA accreditation process as it relates to the common professional components (CPCs) and direct learning outcome assessments, can help with obtaining faculty commitment to the accreditation process and with continued enhancement of the academic quality of sport management programs.
Brynmor C. Breese, Craig A. Williams, Alan R. Barker, Joanne R. Welsman, Samantha G. Fawkner, and Neil Armstrong
This study examined longitudinal changes in the pulmonary oxygen uptake (pV̇O 2) kinetic response to heavy-intensity exercise in 14–16 yr old boys. Fourteen healthy boys (age 14.1 ± 0.2 yr) completed exercise testing on two occasions with a 2-yr interval. Each participant completed a minimum of three ‘step’ exercise transitions, from unloaded pedalling to a constant work rate corresponding to 40% of the difference between the pV̇O 2 at the gas exchange threshold and peak pV̇O 2 (40% Δ). Over the 2-yr period a significant increase in the phase II time constant (25 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 5 s; p = .002, ω2 = 0.34), the relative amplitude of the pV̇O 2 slow component (9 ± 5 vs. 13 ± 4%; p = .036, ω2 = 0.14) and the pV̇O 2 gain at end-exercise (11.6 ± 0.6 vs. 12.4 ± 0.7 mL·min−1·W−1; p < .001, ω2 = 0.42) were observed. These data indicate that the control of oxidative phosphorylation in response to heavy-intensity cycling exercise is age-dependent in teenage boys.