This study looks at the hosting of the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup in Rio de Janeiro and, based on research drawing on environmental psychology and studies of liminality, hypothesizes that the perceived celebrative atmosphere in the city increases subjective well-being of host city residents (cariocas). Data were collected via in-person intercept surveys from 221 and 218 cariocas before and during the event, respectively. There was an increase in subjective well-being from before the event to during the event. The results of two-group path modeling revealed further that there was a positive impact of the perceived celebrative atmosphere in the host city on residents’ subjective well-being during the event; the effect was weaker (though still positive) for the time period when the event was not being hosted. Initiatives may build upon the atmospheric elements in a city to increase subjective well-being of residents, particularly in the context of event hosting.
Andrea Schlegel, Rebecca Pfitzner and Joerg Koenigstorfer
Joerg Koenigstorfer, Andrea Groeppel-Klein and Marco Schmitt
This article reports results from a longitudinal field study examining the psychological processes underlying soccer fans’ loyalty toward their clubs and fans’ emotional states depending on the seasonal outcome of the clubs. We found that fans’ perceptions of three relationship strength indicators—satisfaction, self-connection, and intimate commitment—and the levels of basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) did not decrease and cutting off reflected failure (CORFing) did not increase when soccer clubs of the German Bundesliga were relegated to a lower division. The levels of BIRGing, self-connection, and intimate commitment in fact increased after this event, producing intense positive, negative, and mixed emotions in fans. The results support the notion that fandom is about expressing identity and attitude to life, sharing intimate details with the club, and standing by it, in both good and bad times. Thus fans and their clubs are strongly bound to each other.