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  • Author: Johan Lefevre x
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Stijn De Baere, Renaat Philippaerts, Kristine De Martelaer and Johan Lefevre

Background:

Our aim was to investigate the association between different components of physical activity (PA) and health-related fitness in 10-to 14-year-old children.

Methods:

241 children were recruited from 15 primary and 15 secondary schools. PA was assessed using the SenseWear Mini and an electronic diary. Health-related fitness was assessed using Eurofit and translated into indicators of body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness. Associations between PA intensity and physical fitness components were determined using multiple linear regression models adjusted for possible confounders and the contribution of PA domains per intensity categories was calculated.

Results:

Associations between PA intensities and body fatness were low to moderate (|β| = 0.09 to 0.44), explaining up to 6% of the variance in boys and 17% in girls. For cardiorespiratory fitness, associations were higher (|β| = 0.17 to 0.56), with PA explaining up to 6% of the variance in boys and 31% in girls. Low-tomoderate associations (|β| = 0.06 to 0.43) were found for muscular fitness, with PA explaining up to 7% in boys and 13% in girls. Stronger associations were found for sedentary and light activities.

Conclusions:

Low-to-moderate associations between PA and fitness components were observed, with higher associations in girls. Sedentary and light intensity activity showed the strongest link with body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness.

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Evelien Mertens, Peter Clarys, Johan Lefevre, Ruben Charlier, Sara Knaeps and Benedicte Deforche

Background:

Longitudinal evidence concerning the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and blood lipids and between anthropometric parameters (ANTP) and blood lipids is limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between changes in CRF and ANTP and changes in blood lipids.

Methods:

In 2002–2004 and 2012–2014, 652 participants were tested. CRF was measured as VO2peak using a maximal ergometer test. Waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used as ANTP. Blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. A linear regression analysis was performed to investigate associations between changes in CRF and ANTP and changes in blood lipids.

Results:

After adjustment a decrease in CRF was associated with an increase in triglycerides and a decrease in HDL cholesterol in men. An increase in WC was associated with an increase in TC, LDL cholesterol and ratio total/HDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol, while an increase in BMI was associated with an increase in ratio total/HDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol.

Conclusions:

WC and BMI were more longitudinally associated with blood lipids compared with CRF. Improving ANTP can enhance the blood lipid profile, while CRF had only limited influence.

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Stijn De Baere, Jan Seghers, Renaat Philippaerts, Kristine De Martelaer and Johan Lefevre

Background:

to investigate levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in 10- to 14-year-olds and to determine PA differences between week-weekend days, genders and school stages.

Methods:

241 children were recruited from 15 primary and 15 secondary schools. PA was assessed for 7 days using the SenseWear Mini Armband and an electronic diary. Week-weekend and gender differences were determined using 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Combined intensity- and domain-specific PA differences between genders and school stages were examined using 2-way ANOVA.

Results:

Weekdays were more active compared with weekend days. Physical activity level (PAL) of boys was higher compared with girls. Boys showed more moderate (+15 min/day) and vigorous PA (+9 min/day), no differences were found for SB and light PA. Secondary school children showed more SB (+111 min/day), moderate (+8 min/day) and vigorous (+9 min/day) PA and less light PA (-66 min/day) compared with primary school children. No difference was found for PAL. The results of the combined intensity- and domain-specific parameters revealed more nuanced differences between genders and school stages.

Conclusions:

Our results demonstrate the complexity of PA and SB behavior of children, indicating the need for a multidimensional and differentiated approach in PA promotion.

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Sara Knaeps, Stijn De Baere, Jan Bourgois, Evelien Mertens, Ruben Charlier and Johan Lefevre

Background: The purpose of the current study was to apply a more novel approach to systematically examine (1) associations of clustered cardiometabolic risk and cardiometabolic risk factors and (2) theoretical substitution of sedentary time with either sleep, light physical activity (LPA), or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and substituting LPA with MVPA. Methods: Physical activity and sleep were objectively measured in 410 Flemish adults [55.5 (9.6) y, 64% men] with a SenseWear Pro 3 Armband. Cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and cardiorespiratory fitness were objectively measured. Isotemporal substitution analyses were performed to assess the associations between substituting time from a potentially negative behavior into another potentially positive behavior. Results: Theoretical substitution of sedentary time with MVPA was associated with decreased clustered cardiometabolic risk, b = −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.04), and substituting LPA with MVPA was associated with a decrease in clustered cardiometabolic risk, b = −0.08 (−0.11 to −0.04). Substituting sedentary time with LPA or sleep improved high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and waist circumference. Conclusion: Theoretical replacement of sedentary time with either sleep, LPA, or MVPA was positively associated with improved cardiometabolic risk factor status. Interventions for increasing cardiometabolic health can focus on replacing sedentary time with either sleep, LPA, or MVPA depending on the risk parameters that need to be targeted.

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Joric B. Vandendriessche, Barbara F.R. Vandorpe, Roel Vaeyens, Robert M. Malina, Johan Lefevre, Matthieu Lenoir and Renaat M. Philippaerts

Socioeconomic status (SES) is often indicated as a factor that influences physical activity and associated health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between SES and sport participation, morphology, fitness and motor coordination in a sample of 1955 Flemish children 6–11 years of age. Gender, age and SES-specific values for morphologic dimensions, amount and type of sport participation and fitness and motor coordination tests were compared. SES was positively and significantly associated with sport participation and sports club membership in both sexes. Although differences were not consistently significant, morphologic dimensions and tests of fitness and motor coordination showed a trend in favor of children from higher SES. The results suggest that public and local authorities should consider providing equal opportunities for children in all social strata and especially those in the lower SES to experience the beneficial effects of sport participation through which they can enhance levels of physical fitness and motor coordination.

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Joric B. Vandendriessche, Barbara Vandorpe, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Roel Vaeyens, Matthieu Lenoir, Johan Lefevre and Renaat M. Philippaerts

Discussions of growth and motor performance of children are often set in the context of physical fitness. Although there is a clear theoretical concept or definition of fitness comprising motor coordination, the latter is not systematically considered. This study determined to what extent the variance in motor coordination might be explained by morphological and fitness characteristics. To postulate understanding of this association during childhood, 613 boys aged 7–11 years completed the morphological measurements, the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and different fitness tests. The results demonstrated a substantial interrelationship among morphology, fitness and motor coordination in elementary school boys. The magnitude of explained variance and the loadings of the canonical correlation between the several constructs are strongly pronounced during childhood indicating that these constructs should be well considered given their contribution to a child’s general development.