An understanding of the habitual physical activity levels of children with chronic disorders is an important consideration relevant to both treatment and clinical monitoring (8). However, a feasible and useful tool for measuring the physical activity levels of children with chronic illness in clinical settings is not readily available. In this article, we review the development and initial psychometric testing (i.e., construct and reliability) of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES), a measure developed for use in clinical research. A summary of these investigations suggests that the HAES appears both valid and reliable as a measure of activity in pediatric populations.
John A. Hay, Brock University and John Cairney
John A. Miller Jr and James G. Hay
The horizontal jumps at the 1985 TAC (U.S. national) Championships in Indianapolis were filmed as part of the Elite Athlete Project of the U.S. Olympic Committee. Jumps by Willie Banks and Mike Conley were especially outstanding and, because of this as well as some excellent performances by the third and fourth place finishers, an analysis of the jumping techniques used by the top four finishers was conducted. Its purposes were (a) to determine selected kinematic data for a world record triple jump, and (b) to compare these data with corresponding data for previous performances by the same athlete and for performances by other elite triple jumpers. A comparison of the phase distances and phase ratios for the 1985 TAC jumps with those for the best analyzed jump by Banks, Conley, and Joyner at some previous meets revealed that, as they increased their effective distances, all three decreased the emphasis they placed on the step phase. The best athletes seem to use a “pawing” (or active) landing prior to takeoff into the step phase and a “blocking” landing prior to takeoff into the jump phase.
James G. Hay and John A. Miller Jr.
The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the techniques used by elite triple jumpers and (b) to determine which characteristics were significantly related to the officially recorded distance of the jump. The subjects were the 12 finalists in the Triple Jump at the 1984 Olympic Games. Two motion-picture cameras placed with their optical axes at right angles to the runway were used to record the performances of the subjects. Means and standard deviations of the variables identified in a theoretical model and correlations between these variables and the distance of the jump were computed. Correlation of the distances achieved in each of the phases with the official distance of the jump suggested that, although the hop and jump phases made greater percentage contributions to the official distance than did the step phase, they accounted for only small amounts of the variance in that distance. Significant correlations of other independent variables with the distance of the jump suggested that the more the athlete's resources are expended prior to the jump phase and the more vertical his effort at takeoff into the jump, the better is the final result.
James G. Hay and John A. Miller Jr.
The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the techniques used by elite female athletes during the transition from approach to takeoff in the long jump and (b) to determine which characteristics were significantly related to the officially recorded distance of the jump. The subjects were the 12 finalists in the Women's Long Jump at the 1984 Olympic Games. A motion-picture camera placed with its optical axis at right angles to the runway was used to record the performances of the subjects. Means and standard deviations of the variables identified in a theoretical model and correlations between these variables and the distance of the jump were computed. Significant correlations revealed that the less the downward velocity at touchdown at the end of the third-last stride, and the less this velocity is changed by the vertical forces transmitted via the supporting foot, and the shorter the duration of the next flight phase, the greater the distance of the jump.
John Cairney, John A. Hay, Brent E. Faught, Andreas Flouris and Panagiota Klentrou
It is not known whether children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) than children without the disorder, or whether this relationship varies by age and gender. These issues are examined using a cross-sectional assessment of children 9-14 years of age (N = 549). Participants were screened for DCD using the short form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP-SF). A BOTMP-SF age-adjusted standard score at or below the 10th percentile rank on the BOTMP-SF was required to classify a diagnosis for probable DCD. CRF was determined from each participant’s predicted peak-aerobic power using the Léger 20-m shuttle-run test. Children with DCD report lower CRF than children without the disorder and are more likely to be in a high-risk group (≤ 20th percentile in peak VO2). Moreover, 70% of boys with DCD scored at or below the 20th percentile in peak VO2. Further research in a laboratory setting should be conducted to confirm these findings.
Claire E. Francis, Patricia E. Longmuir, Charles Boyer, Lars Bo Andersen, Joel D. Barnes, Elena Boiarskaia, John Cairney, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Guy Faulkner, Beth P. Hands, John A. Hay, Ian Janssen, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Han C. G. Kemper, Duane Knudson, Meghann Lloyd, Thomas L. McKenzie, Tim S. Olds, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Roy J. Shephard, Weimo Zhu and Mark S. Tremblay
The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children’s physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required.
Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores and score interpretation.
Delphi participant consensus was achieved for 64% (47/73) of statement topics, including a revised conceptual model, specific assessment protocols, the importance of longitudinal tracking, and the relative importance of individual protocols and composite scores. Divergent opinions remained regarding the inclusion of sleep time, assessment/scoring of the obstacle course assessment of motor skill, and the need for an overall physical literacy classification.
The revised CAPL model (overlapping domains of physical competence, motivation, and knowledge, encompassed by daily behavior) is appropriate for monitoring the physical literacy of children aged 8 to 12 years. Objectively measured domains (daily behavior, physical competence) have higher relative importance. The interpretation of CAPL results should be reevaluated as more data become available.