John C. Phillips
John C. Phillips
Earlier work (Phillips, 1983) showed limited or no progress in the accessibility of central positions (catcher, shortstop, second base) to black professional baseball aspirants. A closer examination of the data reveals an interesting change during the past two decades. Blacks came to appear in numbers at second base in the mid-1970s and at shortstop during the 1976-1986 decade, but this progress was obscured when the three central positions were combined. Separation of the three positions reveals a clear pattern of progress in accessibility, first at second base, the least central of the central positions, then at shortstop, but not yet at catcher, the most central position. Another pattern of discrimination, exclusion of weak-hitting black players in favor of weak-hitting white players, seems to have disappeared. Some theoretical and practical implications of this apparent decline in discrimination are discussed.
Phillip C. Usera, John T. Foley and Joonkoo Yun
The purpose of this study was to cross-validate skinfold and anthropometric measurements for individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Estimated body fat of 14 individuals with DS and 13 individuals without DS was compared between criterion measurement (BOP POD®) and three prediction equations. Correlations between criterion and field-based tests for non-DS group and DS groups ranged from .81 – .94 and .11 – .54, respectively. Root-Mean-Squared-Error was employed to examine the amount of error on the field-based measurements. A MANOVA indicated significant differences in accuracy between groups for Jackson’s equation and Lohman’s equation. Based on the results, efforts should now be directed toward developing new equations that can assess the body composition of individuals with DS in a clinically feasible way.
Todd C. Phillips, Sean S. Kohles, John F. Orwin, Lori Thein Brody, Ronald P. McCabe and Ray Vanderby Jr.
An impulse-momentum exercise system was instrumented for collection of kinematic and kinetic data during shoulder exercise. The objective of this study was to quantify the dynamics of an exercise system that utilizes a weighted shuttle (22.2 N) traveling on a rail system and evaluate its efficacy as an exercise and rehabilitative tool. Two healthy adults (mean age. 30.0 years) were tested utilizing 2 protocols. The first protocol required the subject to maintain tension in the system while externally rotating the upper arm from neutral to 90° relative to the shoulder and then internally rotating back to the initial position. In me second protocol, the range of motion was similar, but each subject was instructed to carry out the exercise as rapidly as possible without regard to the tension in the rope, thus creating an impulsive load. Average peak loads up to 87.9 and 137.0 N were recorded using the first and second protocols. respectively. Average maximum loads using the second protocol were approximately 50 N greater than those using the first protocol (p < .05). Representative calculations demonstrated that less mechanical work was performed during the first protocol (−3.8 to −45.9%). Qualitatively the shuttle acceleration curves appear dramatically different, although similar average peak accelerations are achieved during use (4.12 vs. 3.47 m/s2, protocol I vs. protocol 2, respectively).