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Viviene A. Temple and John T. Foley
The development of motor skill proficiency during childhood is cumulative and influenced by physical growth and maturation, genetic potential, affordances in the physical and social environment, and the interactions between these factors. Therefore, typically during childhood, the trajectory of change in motor proficiency is positive. To lend developmental validity to the revision of the Test of Gross Motor Development—3rd edition (TGMD-3), this longitudinal study examined whether the skills and subtests of the TGMD-3 changed as might be expected from grade 3 to grade 4 among 277 children. The findings of this study lend support to the developmental validity of the TGMD-3 in that (1) there was within-individual change in the expected direction for both locomotor and ball skills, (2) consistent with the majority of research, boys had significantly higher ball skills scores than girls in both grade 3 and grade 4, and (3) the mean percent of maximum possible scores were in the range of approximately 60–75, which demonstrates that the majority of 8- and 9-year-old children had not reached a ceiling on this test.
Kate Hovey, Diana Niland, and John T. Foley
Purpose: Self-efficacy, having been identified as a factor influencing teacher effectiveness, combined with the increased prevalence of outdoor education (OE) content being taught within physical education contexts, warrants the need for physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to address OE outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an OE program increased self-efficacy to teach OE among PETE students. Methods: PETE students (N = 95) were taught OE content in multiple residential environments and were evaluated using the “Survey of Self-efficacy for Teaching Outdoor Education.” Results: Results indicated a significant increase in self-efficacy scores from pretest to posttest in all content areas (OE skills, group dynamic skills, and models and theories). Overall, the OE program had a large effect in changing self-efficacy scores. Conclusion: Participation in the program positively affected PETE students’ self-efficacy for teaching OE, which may improve their ability to ultimately teach this content in physical education settings.
Michael W. Beets and John T. Foley
Much of the research conducted to date implies overweight youth exhibit uniform active and sedentary behavioral patterns. This approach negates the possibility that multiple co-occurring, and seemingly contrasting, behaviors may manifest within the same individual. We present a substantive dialogue on alternative analytical approaches to identifying risk-related active/sedentary behavioral patterns associated with overweight in adolescents.
Comparisons were made among latent profile analysis (LPA), cluster analysis (CA), and multinomial logistic regression (MLR). A cross sectional sample of youth (N = 6603; 12−18 yrs) completed a questionnaire assessing: physical activity (PA); competing activities (COMP); and sedentary activities (SED). Demographics associated with PA (age, sex, BMI) were used as covariates/predictors.
Comparisons among methods revealed that LPA and CA detected subgroupings of behavioral patterns associated with overweight, each unique in regards to behaviors and demographic characteristics, whereas MLR results followed established associations of low PA and high SED without subgroup separation.
Use of LPA and CA provides a rich understanding of behavioral patterns and the related demographic characteristics. Decisions guiding the selection of analytical techniques are discussed.
Luis Columna, John T. Foley, and Rebecca K. Lytle
The purpose of this study was to analyze both male and female physical education teacher attitudes toward cultural pluralism and diversity. Participants (N = 433) were adapted physical education specialists, physical education generalists, and teacher candidates. The research method was a descriptive cross-sectional survey (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990). Data were collected using a modified version of the Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment survey (Stanley, 1997). Mann-Whitney U tests showed no significant differences in attitude scores between teachers and teacher candidates. However, women’s attitude scores were significantly higher than men’s. Further Friedman’s ANOVA test showed statistical differences on the survey’s constructs for gender and professional status. Post hoc analysis indicated that the groups scored significantly higher on the construct, Value Cultural Pluralism than Implement Cultural Pluralism. This means teachers generally valued cultural diversity, but struggled to implement culturally responsive pedagogy. In conclusion, physical educators may need better preparation to ensure cultural competence.
Phillip C. Usera, John T. Foley, and Joonkoo Yun
The purpose of this study was to cross-validate skinfold and anthropometric measurements for individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Estimated body fat of 14 individuals with DS and 13 individuals without DS was compared between criterion measurement (BOP POD®) and three prediction equations. Correlations between criterion and field-based tests for non-DS group and DS groups ranged from .81 – .94 and .11 – .54, respectively. Root-Mean-Squared-Error was employed to examine the amount of error on the field-based measurements. A MANOVA indicated significant differences in accuracy between groups for Jackson’s equation and Lohman’s equation. Based on the results, efforts should now be directed toward developing new equations that can assess the body composition of individuals with DS in a clinically feasible way.
John T. Foley, Meghann Lloyd, and Viviene A. Temple
This study examined temporal trends in body mass index (BMI) among United States adults with intellectual disability (ID) participating in Special Olympics from 2005 to 2010. In addition, the prevalence of obesity was compared with published National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) statistics. After data cleaning, 6,004 height and weight records (male = 57%) were available from the Special Olympics International Healthy Athletes Health Promotion database for the calculation of BMI. Rates of overweight and obesity were very high but generally stable over time. Compared with NHANES statistics, the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher for Special Olympics female participants in each data collection cycle. Integrated efforts to understand the social, environmental, behavioral, and biological determinants of obesity and among Special Olympics participants are needed.
Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Robert W. Motl, John T. Foley, and Bo Fernhall
This study examined the relationship between energy expenditure and wrist accelerometer output during walking in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS). Energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (METs) and activity-count rate were respectively measured with portable spirometry and a uniaxial wrist accelerometer in 17 persons with DS (age: 24.7 ± 6.9 years; 9 women) and 21 persons without DS (age: 26.3 ± 5.2 years; 12 women) during six over-ground walking trials. Combined groups regression showed that the relationship between METs and activity-count rate differed between groups (p < .001). Separate models for each group included activity-count rate and squared activity-count rate as significant predictors of METs (p ≤ .005). Prediction of METs appeared accurate based on Bland-Altman plots and the lack of between-group difference in mean absolute prediction error (DS: 17.07%; Non-DS: 18.74%). Although persons with DS show altered METs to activity-count rate relationship during walking, prediction of their energy expenditure from wrist accelerometry appears feasible.
Kevin Mercier, Erin Centeio, Alex Garn, Heather Erwin, Risto Marttinen, and John Foley
This study investigated physical education (PE) teachers’ experiences with remote instruction in the United States during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. PE teachers (n = 4,362) from all 50 states completed a survey identifying their experiences with remote instruction in May, 2020. Survey responses were analyzed by geographic region, district type, and school level. Teachers reported having students submit assignments (51% yes), using video instruction (37% yes), being less effective when instructing remotely (20% yes), and emphasizing student outcomes focused on health-related fitness (32% yes), and physical activity value/enjoyment (43% yes). Access to technology (40% yes) and required student assignments (43% yes) were lowest among teachers from the South. Rural teachers reported the least access to technology (37% yes) and rated themselves as least effective (24% yes). Secondary level teachers reported the highest percentage of required assignments (84% yes). Teachers’ responses identify unique challenges to delivering equitable and effective remote PE instruction.
Erin Centeio, Kevin Mercier, Alex Garn, Heather Erwin, Risto Marttinen, and John Foley
The purpose of this study was to investigate physical education teachers’ perceptions of implementing online physical education during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as to explore their needs with regard to support for future teaching experiences. A total of 4,302 teachers completed four open-ended questions as part of a larger survey. Deductive and inductive qualitative analysis led to three themes: (a) Teachers’ Proud Moments, (b) Help! So Many Obstacles, and (c) Future Challenges. Teachers stated many successes and challenges that they experienced through the COVID-19 pandemic. Many items specifically focused on use and access to technology, student participation, and meeting students’ needs in various ways. Results can provide guidance for how to address the essential components of physical education in the online environment. In addition, results may provide insight to those who educate, train, and prepare teachers to teach in a virtual and/or physically distanced environment.