John A. Hay, Brock University and John Cairney
An understanding of the habitual physical activity levels of children with chronic disorders is an important consideration relevant to both treatment and clinical monitoring (8). However, a feasible and useful tool for measuring the physical activity levels of children with chronic illness in clinical settings is not readily available. In this article, we review the development and initial psychometric testing (i.e., construct and reliability) of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES), a measure developed for use in clinical research. A summary of these investigations suggests that the HAES appears both valid and reliable as a measure of activity in pediatric populations.
James G. Hay and John T. Gerot
This technical note describes a number of half-periscope devices designed to permit distortion-free records of the underwater motions of a swimmer to be obtained conveniently, at low cost, and without risking damage to the recording equipment. The basic design consists of a camera and camera support system, a mirror and mirror support system, and a wave deflector. Several variations of this half-periscope design and setup are described. The main advantages of the use of such periscope systems are their light construction and the consequent ease with which they can be transported and set up, their versatility with respect to the positions at which they can be placed around a pool, and the flexibility provided by variations in design and setup.
James G. Hay and John A. Miller Jr.
The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the techniques used by elite female athletes during the transition from approach to takeoff in the long jump and (b) to determine which characteristics were significantly related to the officially recorded distance of the jump. The subjects were the 12 finalists in the Women's Long Jump at the 1984 Olympic Games. A motion-picture camera placed with its optical axis at right angles to the runway was used to record the performances of the subjects. Means and standard deviations of the variables identified in a theoretical model and correlations between these variables and the distance of the jump were computed. Significant correlations revealed that the less the downward velocity at touchdown at the end of the third-last stride, and the less this velocity is changed by the vertical forces transmitted via the supporting foot, and the shorter the duration of the next flight phase, the greater the distance of the jump.
John A. Miller Jr and James G. Hay
The horizontal jumps at the 1985 TAC (U.S. national) Championships in Indianapolis were filmed as part of the Elite Athlete Project of the U.S. Olympic Committee. Jumps by Willie Banks and Mike Conley were especially outstanding and, because of this as well as some excellent performances by the third and fourth place finishers, an analysis of the jumping techniques used by the top four finishers was conducted. Its purposes were (a) to determine selected kinematic data for a world record triple jump, and (b) to compare these data with corresponding data for previous performances by the same athlete and for performances by other elite triple jumpers. A comparison of the phase distances and phase ratios for the 1985 TAC jumps with those for the best analyzed jump by Banks, Conley, and Joyner at some previous meets revealed that, as they increased their effective distances, all three decreased the emphasis they placed on the step phase. The best athletes seem to use a “pawing” (or active) landing prior to takeoff into the step phase and a “blocking” landing prior to takeoff into the jump phase.
James G. Hay and John A. Miller Jr.
The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the techniques used by elite triple jumpers and (b) to determine which characteristics were significantly related to the officially recorded distance of the jump. The subjects were the 12 finalists in the Triple Jump at the 1984 Olympic Games. Two motion-picture cameras placed with their optical axes at right angles to the runway were used to record the performances of the subjects. Means and standard deviations of the variables identified in a theoretical model and correlations between these variables and the distance of the jump were computed. Correlation of the distances achieved in each of the phases with the official distance of the jump suggested that, although the hop and jump phases made greater percentage contributions to the official distance than did the step phase, they accounted for only small amounts of the variance in that distance. Significant correlations of other independent variables with the distance of the jump suggested that the more the athlete's resources are expended prior to the jump phase and the more vertical his effort at takeoff into the jump, the better is the final result.
John Cairney, Divya Joshi, Matthew Kwan, John Hay and Brent Faught
This study examines the associations among socioeconomic status (SES), aging, gender and sport and physical activity participation from late childhood into adolescence. Drawing from previous research, we test three hypotheses regarding the impact of aging on SES and sport participation using longitudinal data. The data come from a prospective cohort study of children, all of whom were enrolled in grade 4 (at baseline) in the public school system of a large region of southern Ontario, Canada. We examine two outcome measures: participation in organized sport and physical activity and active free play. Our results show different effects of neighborhood household income, aging and gender for each outcome. For organized sport participation, neighborhood household income effects are constant over time for both boys and girls. For active free play however, neighborhood household income differences widen (or diverge) over time for girls, but not for boys. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and policy considerations.
Cette étude examine les associations entre statut socioéconomique, âge, genre et participation en sport et en activité physique de la fin de l’enfance à l’adolescence. Nous nous appuyons sur les recherches antérieures et des données longitudinales pour tester trois hypothèses à propos de l’impact de l’âge sur le statut socioéconomique et la participation en sport. Les données proviennent d’une étude de cohorte prospective d’enfants, tous étant inscrits en 4ème année (au début de l’étude) dans le système scolaire public d’une grande région du sud de l’Ontario au Canada. Nous mesurons deux types de résultats : la participation en sport organisé et activité physique et le jeu libre actif. Nos résultats montrent différents effets du revenu du ménage du quartier, de l’âge et du genre pour chaque résultat. Pour la participation en sport organisé, les effets du revenu du ménage du quartier sont constants avec le temps à la fois pour les garçons et les filles. Pour le jeu libre actif en revanche, les différences dans le revenu du ménage augmentent (ou divergent) avec le temps pour les filles, mais pas pour les garçons. Nous discutons les implications de ces résultats pour les études et politiques futures.
John Cairney, John Hay, Brent Faught, James Mandigo and Andreas Flouris
This study investigated the effect of gender on the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and self-reported participation in organized and recreational free-play activities. A participation-activity questionnaire and the short form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was administered to a large sample of children ages 9 to 14 (N = 590). A total of 44 children (19 boys, 25 girls) were identified as having probable DCD. Regardless of gender, children with DCD had lower self-efficacy toward physical activity and participated in fewer organized and recreational play activities than did children without the disorder. While there were no gender by DCD interactions with self-efficacy and play, girls with DCD had the lowest mean scores of all children. These findings are discussed in terms of the social norms that influence boys and girls’ participation in physical activity.
John Cairney, Brent E. Faught, John Hay, Terrance J. Wade and Laurie M. Corna
Although physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety, research on the mental health benefits of PA in older adults is limited. Moreover, the psychosocial factors that might mediate or moderate the relationship between PA and depression in this population are largely unexplored.
Using a sample of adults age 65 and older (N = 2736), we examined whether the major components of the stress process model (stress, social support, mastery, self-esteem) and physical health mediate or moderate the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms.
Physical health has the single largest effect, accounting for 45% of the effect of PA on depression. The stress process model, with physical health included, accounts for 70% of the relationship between PA and depression.
Among older adults with above average levels of perceived mastery, greater physical activity is associated with higher levels of depression. Limitations and directions for further research are discussed.
John Cairney, John A. Hay, Brent E. Faught, Andreas Flouris and Panagiota Klentrou
It is not known whether children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) than children without the disorder, or whether this relationship varies by age and gender. These issues are examined using a cross-sectional assessment of children 9-14 years of age (N = 549). Participants were screened for DCD using the short form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP-SF). A BOTMP-SF age-adjusted standard score at or below the 10th percentile rank on the BOTMP-SF was required to classify a diagnosis for probable DCD. CRF was determined from each participant’s predicted peak-aerobic power using the Léger 20-m shuttle-run test. Children with DCD report lower CRF than children without the disorder and are more likely to be in a high-risk group (≤ 20th percentile in peak VO2). Moreover, 70% of boys with DCD scored at or below the 20th percentile in peak VO2. Further research in a laboratory setting should be conducted to confirm these findings.