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Pain on the Run: Injury, Pain and Performance in a Distance Runner

John Heil

Expectations regarding pain tolerance are imbedded in the culture of sport, and bear heavily on pain and injury management. The athlete’s experience of pain is an encounter with core issues in the ethos of sport. As such, pain behavior not only influences performance but also is seen as defining character. This case study looks at the pain experience of a track and field athlete over a several-hour period from initial injury to stabilization, blending the perspective of athlete and sport psychologist. As the injury experience evolved, a complex set of interacting biological, psychological and social factors came into play, which alternately facilitated and inhibited the pain experience and which influenced action taken in response to pain.

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Turning Injury to Advantage: Rapid Recovery on Game Day

John Heil

Edited by Adam Naylor

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A Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for College Athletes With Injuries

Leslie W. Podlog, John Heil, Ryan D. Burns, Sean Bergeson, Tom Iriye, Brad Fawver, and A. Mark Williams

The authors used a quasi-experimental design to examine the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral-therapy (CBT) intervention for enhancing psychological well-being (positive and negative affect, vitality, self-esteem), rehabilitation adherence, and clinical rehabilitation outcomes (pain, physical function) in 16 NCAA (National Collegiate Athletics Association) Division I athletes experiencing a range of severe injuries. ANCOVAs, with adjusted baseline scores, revealed significant differences between the experimental and control groups for positive affect at rehabilitation midpoint (T2; adjusted mean difference (AMD) = 0.41, p = .04, η2 = .34) and return to play (T3; AMD = 0.67, p < .001, η2 = .70), negative affect at T3 (AMD = −0.81, p = .01, η2 = .47), and vitality at T2 (AMD = 0.99, p = .01, η2 = .48) and T3 (AMD = 1.08, p = .02, η2 = .33). Given decrements in emotional functioning after injury, the data support the use of CBT-based interventions for facilitating the emotional well-being of athletes with severe injuries.

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Validation of the Actical Activity Monitor in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

Steven P. Hooker, Anna Feeney, Brent Hutto, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Kerry McIver, Daniel P. Heil, John E. Vena, Michael J. LaMonte, and Steven N. Blair

Purpose:

This study was designed to validate the Actical activity monitor in middle-aged and older adults of varying body composition to develop accelerometer thresholds to distinguish between light and moderate intensity physical activity (PA).

Methods:

Nonobese 45 to 64 yr (N = 29), obese 45 to 64 yr (N = 21), and ≥65 yr (N = 23; varying body composition) participants completed laboratory-based sitting, household, and locomotive activities while wearing an Actical monitor and a portable metabolic measurement system. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to identify activity count (AC) cut-points to differentiate between light intensity (<3 METs) and moderate intensity (≥3METs) PA.

Results:

Using group-specific algorithms, AC cut points for 3 METs were 1634, 1107, and 431 for the obese 45 to 64 yr group, nonobese 45 to 64 yr group, and ≥65 yr group, respectively. However, sensitivity and specificity analysis revealed that an AC cut-point of 1065 yielded similar accuracy for detecting an activity as less than or greater than 3 METs, regardless of age and body composition.

Conclusion:

For the Actical activity monitor, an AC cut-point of 1065 can be used to determine light and moderate intensity PA in people ≥45 years of age.