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John M. Dunn

An historical view of the life and contributions of Hollis Francis Fait to the field of special physical education is presented in this article. Dr. Fait’s childhood, education, and early career are explored as well as his success in developing at the University of Connecticut one of the first graduate programs to train physical educators to work with the handicapped. Dr. Fait’s perspectives on athletics, administration, minorities, and scholarship are described. His belief in the need for concise language and clarity of thought demonstrated in his own scholarship is discussed.

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Christine M. King and John M. Dunn

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of classroom teachers in observing students’ motor performance. In order to assess teacher accuracy in rating motor performance, an analysis was conducted on students’ scores on the Short Form of the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-S) between those who were rated high as compared to those who were rated low in motor performance, as determined by a teacher observation form. The two-tailed t statistic indicated a significant difference between standard mean scores for upper and lower quartile performances on the BOT-S (P<.05). However, there was a high degree of variance within the high and low groups. The results suggest that classroom teachers are more accurate in observing high motor performance than in observing low motor performance.

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Jeffrey A. McCubbin and John M. Dunn

This study examined the need for the preparation of leadership personnel in the area of adapted physical education within the USA. Data were collected on the advertised positions in the Chronicle of Higher Education between 1991-1998 compared to the numbers of personnel prepared during a previous, similar time period (1981-1989). During the 1991-1998 time period, 87 professionals completed dissertations related to adapted physical education, while 173 positions in institutions of higher education were advertised for professionals with expertise in adapted physical education. These data indicate that there continues to be a significant need for additional doctoral personnel trained in adapted physical education for college or university teaching positions in the United States. Evidence of a need for diversified, well-qualified training programs is offered. In addition, the authors suggest promising alternate approaches to assist in meeting the needs of qualified personnel in adapted physical education for leadership positions.

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Carol A. Leitschuh and John M. Dunn

The purpose was to determine predictors of the gross motor development quotient of the Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985) for young children prenatally exposed to cocaine/polydrugs. Data were collected on 11 variables hypothesized to influence young children’s development. Participants were 28 children (15 males, 13 females), ages 3 to 6 years, exposed prenatally to cocaine/polydrugs and their nonbiological mothers (i.e., primary care providers). Multiple regression procedures indicated support for the hypothesis that the gross motor development quotient is predicted by the interaction of the child’s effortful control, the primary care provider’s understanding and confidence, and the amount of early intervention service the child received. Correlational analysis supported the hypothesis that with this group of children, early motor skill did not predict delay in the gross motor development quotient at ages 3 to 6 years.

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John M. Dunn and Diane H. Craft

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John M. Dunn and H.D. Bud Fredericks

The mainstreaming of handicapped students into physical education classes is dependent upon teachers who can provide successful learning experiences. The application of behavior management concepts appears to be an instructional technique which physical educators should consider in designing quality mainstreaming experiences. Studies were reviewed that report the application of behavior management principles in various curricular areas including physical education. Additional research is needed to substantiate the importance of behavior management techniques in helping to create a favorable environment in the mainstreamed physical education class.

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Pao-Yin Hsu and John M. Dunn

The purpose of this study was to compare reverse chaining and forward chaining instructional methods in teaching a motor task to moderately mentally retarded individuals. The motor task employed was a modified bowling skill using a four-step approach. Thirty moderately mentally retarded individuals were randomly assigned to either the reverse chaining or the forward chaining group. The 15 subjects in the reverse chaining group were taught the last subtask first and then each subsequent subtask was added one by one until the entire skill sequence was taught. For the 15 subjects in the forward chaining group, the first subtask was taught first, and then each following subtask was added one by one until the entire skill sequence was taught. Results showed that the subjects in the reverse chaining group required significantly fewer trails and physical assists to learn the given motor task than the subjects in the forward chaining group. No significant differences in retention scores were found between the two groups.

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Greg Reid, John M. Dunn and James McClements

The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines to facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities as subjects in research. Practical suggestions and ethical issues are discussed. The guidelines are separated into components of the research process: (a) locating and selecting subjects, (b) communicating with caregivers and association personnel, (c) obtaining informed consent, (d) preparing subjects for participation in research, and (e) reporting research results. The guidelines ensure treatment of subjects with dignity and improve research quality.

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John M. Dunn and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

This paper presents data that document the need for additional leadership personnel in adapted physical education. A systematic analysis of the Chronicle of Higher Education, Dissertation Abstracts International, and the Physical Education Gold Book reveals that there is currently a discrepancy between the number of advertised positions in higher education and the number of available personnel to fill these positions. The delivery of appropriate personnel preparation programs in the area of adapted physical education is dependent upon the availability of well trained and qualified personnel. Observations are made on the type of training needed and recommendations for ensuring the availability of a qualified pool of applicants.

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Pauli Rintala, Heikki Lyytinen and John M. Dunn

The effects of a 4-month physical activity program on physical fitness, balance, and ball skills were examined. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to study the effects of training on static and dynamic balance, physical fitness, and the motor skills of catching and throwing. The subjects were eight 7- to 11-year-old, ambulatory, hemiplegic or diplegic cerebral palsy children. The results indicated slight overall improvement in physical fitness. The specific balance training was not effective, with improvements in dynamic balance noted in only one subject. The specific ball training improved target throw skill in all subjects, but catching skill scores varied greatly, with none of the subjects showing consistent improvement.