Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author: John P. Porcari x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Joshua Christen, Carl Foster, John P. Porcari and Richard P. Mikat

Purpose:

The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) has gained popularity as a “user friendly” method for evaluating internal training load. sRPE has historically been obtained 30 min after exercise. This study evaluated the effect of postexercise measurement time on sRPE after steady-state and interval cycle exercise.

Methods:

Well-trained subjects (N = 15) (maximal oxygen consumption = 51 ± 4 and 36 ± 4 mL/kg [cycle ergometer] for men and women, respectively) completed counterbalanced 30-minute steady-state and interval training bouts. The steady-state ride was at 90% of ventilatory threshold. The work-to-rest ratio of the interval rides was 1:1, and the interval segment durations were 1, 2, and 3 min. The high-intensity component of each interval bout was 75% peak power output, which was accepted as a surrogate of the respiratory compensation threshold, critical power, or maximal lactate steady state. Heart rate, blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The sRPE (category ratio scale) was measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 60 min and 24 h after each ride using a visual analog scale (VAS) to prevent bias associated with specific RPE verbal anchors.

Results:

sRPE at 30 min postexercise followed a similar trend: steady state = 3.7, 1 min = 3.9, 2 min = 4.7, 3 min = 6.2. No significant differences (P > .05) in sRPE were found based on postexercise sampling times, from 5 min to 24 h postexercise.

Conclusions:

Postexercise time does not appear to have a significant effect on sRPE after either steady-state or interval exercise. Thus, sRPE appears to be temporally robust and is not necessarily limited to the 30-min-postexercise window historically used with this technique, although the presence or absence of a cooldown period after the exercise bout may be important.

Restricted access

Andrea Fusco, Christine Knutson, Charles King, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari, Cristina Cortis and Carl Foster

Purpose:

Although the Session RPE (sRPE) is primarily a marker of internal training load (TL), it may be sensitive to external TL determining factors such as duration and volume. Thus, sRPE could provide further information on accumulated fatigue not available from markers of internal TL. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate sRPE during heavy training bouts at relatively constant intensity.

Methods:

Eleven university swimmers performed a high-volume training session consisting of 4x10x100-yard (4x10x91.4-m). Repetition lap time and heart rate (HR) were measured for each repetition and averaged for each set. Blood lactate concentration ([HLa]) was measured after each set. At the end of each set, a 10-minute rest period was allowed, during which sRPE values were obtained, as if the training bout had ended.

Results:

There were no differences between sets for lap time (p=.096), HR (p=.717) and [HLa] (p=.466), suggesting that the subjects were working at the same external and internal intensity. There was an increase (p=.0002) in sRPE between sets (first: 4±1.2; second: 5±1.3; third: 7±1.3; fourth: 8±1.5), suggesting that even when maintaining the same intensity, the perception of the entire workload increased with duration.

Conclusions:

Increases in duration, although performed with a consistent internal and external intensity, influences sRPE. These findings support the concept that sRPE may provide additional information on accumulated fatigue not available from other markers of TL.

Restricted access

Jana Hagen, Carl Foster, Jose Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jos J. de Koning, Richard P. Mikat, Charles R. Hendrix and John P. Porcari

Music is widely used as an ergogenic aid in sport, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness during closedloop athletic events. In order to determine the effectiveness of music as an ergogenic aid, well-trained and task-habituated cyclists performed 10-km cycle time trials either while listening to self-selected motivational music or with auditory input blocked. There were no statistically significant differences in performance time or physiological or psychological markers related to music (time-trial duration 17.75 ± 2.10 vs 17.81 ± 2.06 min, mean power output 222 ± 66 vs 220 ± 65 W, peak heart rate 184 ± 9 vs 183 ± 8 beats/min, peak blood lactate 12.1 ± 2.6 vs 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol/L, and final rating of perceived exertion 8.4 ± 1.5 vs 8.5 ± 1.6). It is concluded that during exercise at competitive intensity, there is no meaningful effect of music on either performance or physiology.

Restricted access

Jos J. de Koning, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucia, Maarten F. Bobbert, Florentina J. Hettinga and John P. Porcari

Restricted access

Carl Foster, Jos J de Koning, Christian Thiel, Bram Versteeg, Daniel A. Boullosa, Daniel Bok and John P. Porcari

Pacing studies suggest the distribution of effort for optimizing performance. Cross-sectional studies of 1-mile world records (WR) suggest WR progression includes a smaller coefficient of variation of velocity (CV).

Purpose:

This study evaluates whether intra-individual pacing used by elite runners to break their own WR (1-mile, 5-km, 10-km) is related to the evolution of pacing strategy. We provide supportive data from analysis in sub-elite runners.

Methods:

Men’s WR performances (with 400-m or 1-km splits) in 1-mile, 5-km and 10-km were retrieved from the IAAF database (1924-present). Data were analyzed relative to pacing pattern when a runner improved their own WR. Similar analyses are presented for 10-km performance in sub-elite runners before and after intensified training.

Results:

WR performance improved in 1-mile (3:59.4±11.2 to 3:57.2±8.6), 5-km (13:27±0:33 to 13:21±0:33) and 10-km (28:35±1:27 to 28:21±1:21). The average CV did not change in the 1-mile (3.4±1.8 to 3.6±1.6%), 5-km (2.4±0.9 to 2.2±0.8 %) or 10-km (1.4±0.1 to 1.5±0.6%) with improved WR. When velocity was normalized to the % mean velocity for each race, the pacing pattern was almost identical. Very similar patterns were observed in the sub-elite runners in the 10-km. Time improved from 49:20±5:30 to 45:56±4:58, normalized velocity was similar, terminal RPE increased (8.4±1.6 to 9.1±0.8), CV was unchanged (4.4±1.1 to 4.8±2.1%), and VO2max increased (49.8±7.4 to 55.3±8.8 ml·min-1·kg-1).

Conclusion:

The results suggest that when runners break their own best performances, they employ the same pacing pattern, which is different from when WR are improved in cross-sectional data.

Restricted access

Wouter Schallig, Tim Veneman, Dionne A. Noordhof, José A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, John P. Porcari, Jos J. de Koning and Carl Foster

The rating-of-perceived-exertion (RPE) template is thought to regulate pacing and has been shown to be very robust in different circumstances. Purpose: The primary purpose was to investigate whether the RPE template can be manipulated by changing the race distance during the course of a time trial. The secondary purpose was to study how athletes cope with this manipulation, especially in terms of the RPE template. Method: Trained male subjects (N = 10) performed 3 cycling time trials: a 10-km (TT10), a 15-km (TT15), and a manipulated 15-km (TTman). During the TTman, subjects started the time trial believing that they were going to perform a 10-km time trial. However, at 7.5 km they were told that it was a 15-km time trial. Results: A significant main effect of time-trial condition on RPE scores until kilometer 7.5 was found (P = .016). Post hoc comparisons showed that the RPE values of the TT15 were lower than the RPE values of the TT10 (difference 0.60; CI95% 0.11, 1.0) and TTman (difference 0.73; CI95% 0.004, 1.5). After the 7.5 km, a transition phase occurs, in which an interaction effect is present (P = .011). After this transition phase, the RPE values of TTman and TT15 did not statistically differ (P = 1.00). Conclusions: This novel distance-endpoint manipulation demonstrates that it is possible to switch between RPE templates. A clear shift in RPE during the TTman is present between the RPE templates of the TT10 and TT15. The shift strongly supports suggestions that pacing is regulated using an RPE template.

Restricted access

Jacob Cohen, Bridgette Reiner, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, Glenn Wright, Scott T. Doberstein and John P. Porcari

The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) normally grows as a scalar function of relative competitive distance, suggesting that it may translate between the brain and body relative to managing fatigue during time-trial exercise. In nonstandard pacing situations, a reciprocal relationship between RPE and power output (PO) would be predicted.

Purpose:

To determine whether PO would decrease when RPE was forced above the normal growth curve during a cycle time trial.

Methods:

Well-trained cyclists performed randomly ordered 10-km cycle time trials. In CONTROL they rode at their own best pace throughout. In BURST, they made a 1-km “burst” at the 4-km mark and then finished as rapidly as possible.

Results:

CONTROL was significantly (P < .05) faster than BURST (16:36 vs 17:00 min). During CONTROL, responses between 4 and 5 km were PO, 240 W; RPE, 5–6; and blood lactate [HLa], 8–9 mmol/L. During BURST PO increased to 282 W, then fell to 220 W after the burst and remained below CONTROL until the end spurt (9 km). RPE increased to 9 during the burst but returned to the normal RPE growth pattern by 6 km; [HLa] increased to ~13 mmol/L after the burst and remained elevated throughout the remainder of the trial.

Conclusions:

The reciprocal behavior of RPE and PO after BURST supports the hypothesis that RPE translates between the brain and the body during heavy exercise. However, the continuing reduction of PO after the burst, even after RPE returned to its normal growth pattern, suggests that PO is regulated in a more complex manner than reflected solely by RPE.

Restricted access

Kayla B. Henslin Harris, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, Christopher Dodge, Glenn A. Wright and John P. Porcari

Previous studies have found decreases in arterial oxygen saturation to be temporally linked to reductions in power output (PO) during time-trial (TT) exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preexercise desaturation (estimated from pulse oximetry [SpO2]), via normobaric hypoxia, would change the pattern of PO during a TT.

Purpose:

The authors tested the hypothesis that the starting PO of a TT would be reduced in the EARLY trial secondary to a reduced SpO2 but would not be reduced in LATE until ~30 s after the start of the TT.

Methods:

Eight trained cyclists/triathletes (4 male, 4 female) performed 3 randomly ordered 3-km TTs while breathing either room air (CONTROL) or hypoxic air administered 3 min before the start of the TT (EARLY) or at the beginning of the TT (LATE).

Results:

There was no effect of hypoxia on PO during the first 0.3 km of either the EARLY or the LATE trial compared with CONTROL, although there was a significant decrease in pre-TT SpO2 in EARLY vs CONTROL and LATE. The time for PO to decrease was ~40 s after the start of the TT in both EARLY and LATE.

Conclusions:

The results support the strong effect of the preexercise template on the pattern of PO during simulated competition and suggest that reductions in SpO2 are not direct signals to decrease PO.

Restricted access

Blaine E. Arney, Reese Glover, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Jos J. de Koning, Teun van Erp, Salvador Jaime, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari and Carl Foster

Purpose: The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is a well-accepted method of monitoring training load in athletes in many different sports. It is based on the category-ratio (0–10) RPE scale (BORG-CR10) developed by Borg. There is no evidence how substitution of the Borg 6–20 RPE scale (BORG-RPE) might influence the sRPE in athletes. Methods: Systematically training, recreational-level athletes from a number of sport disciplines performed 6 randomly ordered, 30-min interval-training sessions, at intensities based on peak power output (PPO) and designed to be easy (50% PPO), moderate (75% PPO), or hard (85% PPO). Ratings of sRPE were obtained 30 min postexercise using either the BORG-CR10 or BORG-RPE and compared for matched exercise conditions. Results: The average percentage of heart-rate reserve was well correlated with sRPE from both BORG-CR10 (r = .76) and BORG-RPE (r = .69). The sRPE ratings from BORG-CR10 and BORG-RPE were very strongly correlated (r = .90) at matched times. Conclusions: Although producing different absolute numbers, sRPE derived from either the BORG-CR10 or BORG-RPE provides essentially interchangeable estimates of perceived exercise training intensity.