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John Warber and Terry Bazzarre

The effect of weight lifting and running on the plasma lipid profiles of a physically fit 32-year-old hypercholesterolemic male were determined while he adhered to a controlled Phase III American Heart Association diet. The subject followed the same daily menu pattern for the entire test period. He completed four treatment phases: 6 weeks of detraining, 10 weeks of weight lifting, 10 weeks of running, and 10 weeks of weight lifting. The study was designed to closely compare two modes of exercise training for the same duration. A complete lipid profile was analyzed at baseline and every 5 weeks thereafter. Body weight and body fat remained constant throughout the study. Results revealed that running was the only effective treatment in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A return to weight lifting was associated with a 4 mg % decrease in HDLC. The controlled low-fat, high carbohydrate, and low cholesterol diet effectively reduced total cholesterol, low-density, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in this hypercholesterolemic subject, while running increased HDL-C.

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John P. Warber, John F. Patton, William J. Tharion, Steven H. Zeisel, Robert P. Mello, Christopher P. Kemnitz and Harris R. Lieberman

It has been reported that plasma choline levels decrease following certain types of strenuous exercise. Preliminary findings also suggest that a drop in plasma choline may limit physical performance, while choline supplementation may delay fatigue during prolonged efforts. A double-blind crossover design was used to determine the relationship between plasma choline and performance during and after 4 hr of strenuous exercise. Volunteers (N = 14) received either a placebo or treatment beverage (8.425 g choline citrate) prior to and midway through a 4-hr load carriage treadmill exercise (3% grade at 5.6 km/h × 20 km) carrying a total load of 34.1 kg. Following the treadmill test, run time-to-exhaustion and squat tests were performed, and perceived exertion, plasma choline, glycerophosphocholine, and phosphatidylcholine were measured. Plasma choline levels increased 128% after the run-to-exhaustion with the choline supplemented beverage but remained unchanged with the placebo beverage. No significant effects were seen with choline supplementation on any outcome performance measure. Consequently, soldiers conditioned to carry heavy loads over long distances do not deplete plasma choline as a result of a prolonged exhaustive exercise under a placebo beverage, nor do they benefit from choline supplementation to delay fatigue under the same conditions.