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Luca P. Ardigò and Johnny Padulo

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Monoem Haddad, Johnny Padulo and Karim Chamari

Despite various contributing factors, session rating of perceived exertion has the potential to affect a large proportion of the global sporting and clinical communities since it is an inexpensive and simple tool that is highly practical and accurately measures an athlete’s outcome of training or competition. Its simplicity can help optimize performance and reduce negative outcomes of hard training in elite athletes.

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Wissem Dhahbi, Anis Chaouachi, Johnny Padulo, David G. Behm and Karim Chamari


To examine the concurrent validity and absolute and relative reliabilities of a commando-specific power test.


21 antiterrorism commandos.


All participants were assessed on a 5-m rope-climbing test (RCT) and the following tests: pull-ups, push-ups, estimated-1-repetition-maximum (est-1RM), medicine-ball put, and handgrip-strength test. The stopwatch method related to the execution time (ET) was validated by comparison with video motion analysis. The best individual attempt of 3 trials was kept for analysis, and the performance was expressed in absolute power output (APO) and body-mass relative power output (RPO).


Stopwatch assessment had an excellent criterion validity (r = .99, P < .001), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1) of .98, standard errors of measurement (SEM%) of 1.19%, bias ± the 95% limits of agreement of 0.03 ± 0.26 s, and minimal detectable change (MDC95) of 0.51 s. The ET, APO, and RPO were significantly correlated (P < .05) with all cited tests (absolute-value r range .55−.98), while est-1RM was not significantly correlated with the other tests. Test-retest reliability coefficients were excellent for ET, APO, and RPO (ICC3,1 > .90). The SEM% values for the ET, APO, and RPO were all under 5% (range 3.73−4.52%), all being smaller than the corresponding smallest worthwhile change. The coefficients of variation for the ET, APO, and RPO were all under 10%. %MDC95 ranged from 10.37% to 12.53%.


Considering the strong concurrent validity and excellent test–retest reliability, the RCT is simple to administer, has ecological validity, and is a valid specific field test of upper-body power for commandos and, in addition, can be accurately assessed with a stopwatch.

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Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Johnny Padulo, Riadh Khalifa, Sana Ridène, Khaled Alamri, Mirjana Milić, Sabri Gueid and Karim Chamari

Purpose: To explore the immediate (15-s post-warm-up) and the delayed (after 20 and 40 min of simulated volleyball play) effects of 2 different warm-up protocols—a stretching-free volleyball warm-up (NS) and a warm-up incorporating dynamic stretching (DS)—on subsequent change of direction (COD) performance in young elite volleyball players. Methods: Sixteen male players (age 16.88 [0.34] y, body mass 75.81 [5.41] kg, body height 1.91 [0.05] m, body mass index 20.84 [1.79] kg·m−2, and body fat percentage 9.48 [1.83]%) from the U-17 national volleyball team performed NS and DS on 2 different nonconsecutive days. During each testing session (NS and DS), half T-test performance measurements were performed after 5 minutes of a general warm-up (ie, baseline), immediately post-warm-up (after 15 s), and after 20 and 40 minutes of simulated volleyball play. Results: For DS, a significant improvement in COD performance (2.08%, P < .001) was observed after 20 minutes of play compared with the baseline values. In addition, COD performance recorded after 40 minutes of play was better than after 15-second post-warm-up (5.85%, P = .001). Inferential statistics showed better COD performance in the DS condition after 20 minutes of play (2.32%, likely negative, d = 0.61). Conclusions: Compared with NS, DS tended to affect the pattern of improvement of COD performance during play by intensifying and accelerating it. Consequently, to enhance COD performance for up to 40 minutes into the game, it is recommended that DS be incorporated to the warm-up preceding the match.