Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author: Jon L. Oliver x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Jon L. Oliver and Robert W. Meyers

Purpose:

The purpose of the current study was to assess the reliability of a new protocol that examines different components of agility using commercially available timing gates.

Methods:

Seventeen physically active males completed four trials of a new protocol, which consisted of a number of 10-m sprints. Sprints were completed in a straight line or with a change of direction after 5 m. The change of direction was either planned or reactive, with participants reacting to a visual light stimulus.

Results:

There was no systematic bias in any of the measures, although random variation was reduced in the straight acceleration and planned agility when considering only the fnal pair of trials, with mean coefficients of variation (CV) of 1.6% (95%CI, 1.2% to 2.4%) and 1.1% (0.8% to 1.7%), respectively. Reliability of reactive agility remained consistent throughout with mean CVs of approximately 3%. Analyses revealed a high degree of common variance between acceleration times and both planned (r 2 = .93) and reactive (r 2 = .83) agility, as well as between the two agility protocols (r 2 = .87).

Conclusion:

Both planned and reactive agility could be measured reliably. Protocol design and use of a light stimulus in the reactive test emphasize physical abilities comparable with other test measures. Therefore, inclusion of a reactive light stimulus does not appear to require any additional perceptual qualities.

Restricted access

Craig A. Williams, Jon L. Oliver and James Faulkner

Purpose:

The aim of the study was to longitudinally assess speed and jump performance characteristics of youth football players over a 3 y period.

Methods:

Two hundred players across five age squads (U12–U16) from an English Football League academy participated. Sprint performance (10 and 30 m) and countermove-ment jump height were assessed at 6 mo intervals. Pairwise analyses determined the level of change in performance between consecutive intervals.

Results:

Sprint performance changes tended to be greatest during the early teenage years, with observed changes exceeding the smallest worthwhile effect (1.0% for 10 and 30 m sprints). Changes in jump performance were above the smallest worthwhile effect of 1.8% for all but one interval. Large individual variability in the magnitude of change in sprint and jump performance, perhaps due to the confounding effect of growth and maturation, revealed few significant differences across the 6 mo intervals. Cumulative changes in performance demonstrated strong linear relationships, with a yearly rate of change of 6.9% for jump height, and 3.1 and 2.7% for 10 m and 30 m sprint time respectively. The magnitude of change in performance tended not to differ from one interval to another.

Conclusions:

The results of this study may primarily be used to monitor and predict the rate of progression of youth football players. In addition, these results may be used as a benchmark to evaluate the effectiveness of a current training program.

Restricted access

Jon L. Oliver, Neil Armstrong and Craig A. Williams

Purpose:

The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of a newly developed laboratory protocol to measure prolonged repeated-sprint ability (RSA) during soccer-specific exercise.

Methods:

To assess reliability, 12 youth soccer players age 15.2 ± 0.3 y performed 2 trials of a soccer-specific intermittent-exercise test (SSIET) separated by 3 months. The test was performed on a nonmotorized treadmill. A separate sample of 12 youth soccer players (15.2 ± 0.3 y) completed the SSIET while simultaneously HR, VO2, and blood lactate (BLa) were monitored. The SSIET was designed to replicate the demands of competing in one half of a soccer match while sprint performance was monitored. The test included a 5-s sprint every 2 min.

Results:

The mean coefficient of variation was 2.5% for the total distance covered during the SSIET and 3.8% for the total distance sprinted; measures of power output were less reliable (>5.9%). Participants covered 4851 ± 251 m during the SSIET, working at an average intensity of 87.5% ± 3.2% HRpeak and 70.2% ± 3.1% VO2peak, with ~7mmol/L BLa accumulation. A significant reduction (P < .05) in sprint performance was ob served over the course of the SSIET.

Conclusion:

The SSIET provided a reliable method of assessing prolonged RSA in the laboratory. The distance covered and the physiological responses during the SSIET successfully recreated the demands of competing in a soccer match.

Restricted access

Michael C. Rumpf, John B. Cronin, Jon L. Oliver and Michael Hughes

The primary purpose of this paper was to provide insight into the methodological issues and associated reliability of assessments used to quantify running sprint ability in youth athletes aged 8–18 years. Over-ground sprinting was the most reliable and common used choice of assessment to measure sprint performance of youth. In addition, the performance data of those athletes over distances ranging from 5 to 40 meters was collated from 34 published articles and tabulated with regards to the athlete’s chronological age. Torque or nonmotorized treadmills have been used to quantify sprint performance in youth with acceptable reliability, this technology providing deeper insight into sprint kinetics and kinematics; however there is limited performance data on youth using the torque and the nonmotorized treadmill. It is suggested that future research should use this technology in youth to better understand changes associated with growth, maturation and training.

Restricted access

Robert W. Meyers, Jon L. Oliver, Michael G. Hughes, Rhodri S. Lloyd and John B. Cronin

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age and maturation upon magnitude of asymmetry in the force, stiffness and the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in a large cohort of boys.

Methods:

344 boys between the ages of 11 and 16 years completed an anthropometric assessment and a 35 m sprint test, during which sprint performance was recorded via a ground-level optical measurement system. Maximal sprint velocity, as well as asymmetry in spatiotemporal variables, modeled force and stiffness data were established for each participant. For analysis, participants were grouped into chronological age, maturation and percentile groups.

Results:

The range of mean asymmetry across age groups and variables was 2.3–12.6%. The magnitude of asymmetry in all the sprint variables was not significantly different across age and maturation groups (p > .05), except relative leg stiffness (p < .05). No strong relationships between asymmetry in sprint variables and maximal sprint velocity were evident (rs < .39).

Conclusion:

These results provide a novel benchmark for the expected magnitude of asymmetry in a large cohort of uninjured boys during maximal sprint performance. Asymmetry in sprint performance is largely unaffected by age or maturation and no strong relationships exist between the magnitude of asymmetry and maximal sprint velocity.

Restricted access

Robert W. Meyers, Jon L. Oliver, Michael G. Hughes, Rhodri S. Lloyd and John Cronin

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprinting speed in boys over single and multiple steps. Fifty-four adolescent boys (age = 14.1 ± 0.7 years [range = 12.9–15.7 years]; height = 1.63 ± 0.09 m; body mass = 55.3 ± 13.3 kg; -0.31 ± 0.90 age from Peak Height Velocity (PHV) in years; mean ± s) volunteered to complete a 30 m sprint test on 3 occasions over a 2-week period. Speed, step length, step frequency, contact time, and flight time were assessed via an optical measurement system. Speed and step characteristics were obtained from the single-fastest step and average of the 2 and 4 fastest consecutive steps. Pairwise comparison of consecutive trials revealed the coefficient of variation (CV) for speed was greater in 4-step (CV = 7.3 & 7.5%) compared with 2-step (CV = 4.2 & 4.1%) and 1-step (CV = 4.8 & 4.6%) analysis. The CV of step length, step frequency and contact time ranged from 4.8 to 7.5% for 1-step, 3.8–5.0% for 2-step and 4.2–7.5% for 4-step analyses across all trials. An acceptable degree of reliability was achieved for the spatiotemporal and performance variables assessed in this study. Two-step analysis demonstrated the highest degree of reliability for the key spatiotemporal variables, and therefore may be the most suitable approach to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of maximal sprint speed in boys.

Restricted access

Paul J. Read, Jon L. Oliver, Gregory D. Myer, Mark B.A. De Ste Croix and Rhodri S. Lloyd

Purpose: Asymmetry is a risk factor for male youth soccer players. There is a paucity of data confirming the presence of asymmetry using practically viable screening tasks in players at different stages of maturation. Methods: A cross-sectional sample (N = 347) of elite male youth soccer players who were either pre-, circa-, or post-peak height velocity (PHV) completed the following assessments: single-leg Y-Balance anterior reach, single-leg hop for distance, single-leg 75% hop and stick, and single-leg countermovement jumps. Results: Single-leg countermovement jumps landing force asymmetry was higher in both circa- and post-PHV groups (P < .001; d = 0.41–0.43). Single-leg 75% hop and stick landing force asymmetries were also highest in circa-PHV players, but between-group comparisons were not statistically significant and effect sizes were small. Single-leg hop for distance and single-leg Y-Balance anterior reach asymmetries reduced with maturation; however, no group differences were significant, with small to trivial effect sizes (d ≤ 0.25). Conclusion: Stage of maturation did not have a profound effect on asymmetry. Between-limb differences in functional performance seem to be established in early childhood; thus, targeted interventions to reduce this injury risk factor should commence in pre-PHV athletes and be maintained throughout childhood and adolescence to ensure asymmetry does not increase.

Restricted access

Rhodri S. Lloyd, Jon L. Oliver, Gregory D. Myer, Mark B. De Ste Croix, Josh Wass and Paul J. Read

Context: Despite the popularity of jump-landing tasks being used to identify injury risk factors, minimal data currently exist examining differences in knee kinematics during commonly used bilateral jumping tasks. This is especially the case for rebounding-based protocols involving young athletes. Objective: To compare the frontal plane projection angles (FPPAs) during the drop vertical jump (DVJ) and tuck jump assessment (TJA) in a cohort of elite male youth soccer players of varying maturity status. Methods: A total of 57 male youth soccer players from an English championship soccer club participated in this study. Participants performed 3 trials of the DVJ and TJA, during which movement was recorded with 2-dimensional video cameras. FPPA for both right (FPPA-r) and left (FPPA-l) legs, with values <180° indicative of medial knee displacement. Results: On a whole-group level, FPPA-r (172.7° [7.4°] vs 177.2° [11.7°]; P < .05; effect size [ES] = 0.46) and FPPA-l (173.4° [7.3°] vs 179.2° [11.0°]; P < .05; ES = 0.62) were significantly greater for both limbs in the TJA compared with the DVJ; however, these differences were less consistent when grouped by maturity status. FPPA-r during the TJA was significantly and moderately greater in the circa-peak height velocity (PHV) group compared with the post-PHV cohorts (169.4° [6.4°] vs 175.3° [7.8°]; P < .05; ES = 0.49). Whole-group data showed moderate relationships for FPPA-r and FPPA-l between the TJA and DVJ; however, stronger relationships were shown in circa- and post-PHV players compared with the pre-PHV cohort. Conclusions: Considering that the TJA exposed players to a larger FPPA and was sensitive to between-group differences in FPPA-r, the TJA could be viewed as a more suitable screen for identifying FPPA in young male soccer players.