Golf is a popular sport for older adults, and is therefore an important source of physical activity. This study investigated the reasons for golf participation in an older population using the Golf Participation Questionnaire for Older Adults. The participants (N = 3,262, 82.5% male) completed the questionnaire online. The most important reasons for participation were fun, a pleasant playing environment, and competition, with reasons related to health being relatively less important. The female participants rated fun, a pleasant playing environment, and a feeling that participation made them part of a community as more important reasons for participating than males. Although health-related factors were identified as important reasons for golf participation in older adults, non-health-related factors were also more important. Strategies to promote golf participation by older adults, as a means of increasing physical activity, should emphasize aspects related to fun, a pleasant playing environment, and engagement in competition.
Brad J. Stenner, Amber D. Mosewich and Jonathan D. Buckley
Pitre C. Bourdon, Sarah M. Woolford and Jonathan D. Buckley
This study aimed to identify the minimum increment duration required to accurately assess 2 distinct lactate thresholds. A total of 21 elite rowers (12 women and 9 men) participated in this study, and each performed 8 or 9 rowing tests comprising 5 progressive incremental tests (3-, 4-, 5-, 7-, or 10-min steps) and at least three 30-min constant-intensity maximal lactate steady-state assessments. Power output (PO) at lactate threshold 1 was higher in the 3- and 4-min incremental tests. No other measures were different for lactate threshold 1. The PO at the second lactate threshold was different between most tests and was higher than the PO at maximal lactate steady state, except for the 10-min incremental test. Lactate threshold 2 oxygen consumption was higher in the 3-, 4-, and 5-min tests, but heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion were not different between tests. Peak PO in the incremental tests was inversely related to the step durations (r 2 = .86, P ≤ .02). Peak oxygen consumption was higher in the shorter (≤5 min) than the longer (≥7 min) incremental tests, whereas peak HR was not different between tests. These data suggest that for the methods used in this study, incremental exercise tests with step durations ≤7 min overestimate maximal lactate steady-state exercise intensity, peak physiological values are best determined using incremental tests with step durations ≤4 min, and HR measures are not affected by step duration, and therefore, prescription of training HRs can be made using any of these tests.
Clint R. Bellenger, Laura Karavirta, Rebecca L. Thomson, Eileen Y. Robertson, Kade Davison and Jonathan D. Buckley
Heart-rate variability (HRV) as a measure of autonomic function may increase in response to training interventions leading to increases or decreases in performance, making HRV interpretation difficult in isolation. This study aimed to contextualize changes in HRV with subjective measures of training tolerance.
Supine and standing measures of vagally mediated HRV (root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]) and measures of training tolerance (Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire, perception of energy levels, fatigue, and muscle soreness) were recorded daily during 1 wk of light training (LT), 2 wk of heavy training (HT), and 10 d of tapering (T) in 15 male runners/triathletes. HRV and training tolerance were analyzed as rolling 7-d averages at LT, HT, and T. Performance was assessed after LT, HT, and T with a 5-km treadmill time trial (5TTT).
Time to complete the 5TTT likely increased after HT (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval = 0.16 ± 0.06) and then almost certainly decreased after T (ES = −0.34 ± 0.08). Training tolerance worsened after HT (ES ≥ 1.30 ± 0.41) and improved after T (ES ≥ 1.27 ± 0.49). Standing RMSSD very likely increased after HT (ES = 0.62 ± 0.26) and likely remained higher than LT at the completion of T (ES = 0.38 ± 0.21). Changes in supine RMSSD were possible or likely trivial.
Vagally mediated HRV during standing increased in response to functional overreaching (indicating potential parasympathetic hyperactivity) and also to improvements in performance. Thus, additional measures such as training tolerance are required to interpret changes in vagally mediated HRV.
Samuel T Tebeck, Jonathan D Buckley, Clint R Bellenger and Jamie Stanley
To investigate the effect of a 5-day short-term heat acclimation (STHA) protocol in dry (43˚C and 20 % RH) or humid (32˚C and 80 % RH) environmental conditions on endurance cycling performance in temperate conditions (21˚C).
In a randomised, cross-over design, eleven cyclists completed each of the two, 5-day blocks of STHA matched for heat index (44˚C) and total exposure time (480 min), separated by 30-days. Pre- and post-temperate endurance performance (4-min mean max power, lactate threshold 1 and 2) was assessed in addition a heat stress test used to assess individual levels of heat adaptation.
Differences in endurance performance were unclear. Following dry STHA, gross mechanical efficiency was likely reduced [between-condition effect size dry vs humid (90 % confidence interval) [-0.59 (-1.05, -0.15)], oxygen uptake was likely increased for a given workload [+0.64 (0.14, 1.07)] and energy expenditure likely increased [+0.59 (0.17, 1.03)]. Plasma volume expansion at Day 5 of acclimation was similar (within-condition outcome +4.6 ± 6.3 % and +5.3 ± 5.1 % dry and humid respectively) but was retained for 3-4 days longer after the final humid STHA exposure (-0.2 ± 8.1 % and +4.5 ± 4.2 % dry and humid respectively). Sweat rate was very likely increased during dry STHA [+0.57 (0.25, 0.89)] and possibly increased [+0.18 (-0.15; 0.50)] during humid STHA.
STHA induced divergent adaptations between dry and humid conditions, but did not result in differences in temperate endurance performance.
Joel T. Fuller, Clint R. Bellenger, Dominic Thewlis, John Arnold, Rebecca L. Thomson, Margarita D. Tsiros, Eileen Y. Robertson and Jonathan D. Buckley
Stride-to-stride fluctuations in running-stride interval display long-range correlations that break down in the presence of fatigue accumulated during an exhaustive run. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether long-range correlations in running-stride interval were reduced by fatigue accumulated during prolonged exposure to a high training load (functional overreaching) and were associated with decrements in performance caused by functional overreaching.
Ten trained male runners completed 7 d of light training (LT7), 14 d of heavy training (HT14) designed to induce a state of functional overreaching, and 10 d of light training (LT10) in a fixed order. Running-stride intervals and 5-km time-trial (5TT) performance were assessed after each training phase. The strength of long-range correlations in running-stride interval was assessed at 3 speeds (8, 10.5, and 13 km/h) using detrended fluctuation analysis.
Relative to performance post-LT7, time to complete the 5TT was increased after HT14 (+18 s; P < .05) and decreased after LT10 (–20 s; P = .03), but stride-interval long-range correlations remained unchanged at HT14 and LT10 (P > .50). Changes in stride-interval long-range correlations measured at a 10.5-km/h running speed were negatively associated with changes in 5TT performance (r –.46; P = .03).
Runners who were most affected by the prolonged exposure to high training load (as evidenced by greater reductions in 5TT performance) experienced the greatest reductions in stride-interval long-range correlations. Measurement of stride-interval long-range correlations may be useful for monitoring the effect of high training loads on athlete performance.