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Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Estimating Bone Mineral Content

Tori M. Stone, Jonathan E. Wingo, Brett S. Nickerson, and Michael R. Esco

The purpose of this study was to validate single-frequency hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (HFBIA) for estimating bone mineral content (BMC) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as the criterion measure in healthy men and women aged 18–40 years. A total of 80 men and women participated in this study. BMC was estimated on the same day using HFBIA and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The HFBIA device provided higher mean BMC values in men and the entire sample, but not in women. A smaller standard error of estimate was observed in women (0.20, corresponding to 8% of the mean reference BMC values) compared with men (0.39, corresponding to 12% of the mean reference BMC values) and the combined sample (0.31). HFBIA provided a smaller constant error and individual estimation error indicated by the 95% limits of agreement in women (−0.05 ± 0.39) compared with men (−0.16 ± 0.78) and the entire sample (−0.10 ± 0.63). In conclusion, although BMC values were found to be more accurate in women, HFBIA overestimated BMC compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, especially in individuals with lower values. Given these results, using HFBIA to measure BMC would be inappropriate for diagnostic purposes.

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Caffeinated Sports Drink: Ergogenic Effects and Possible Mechanisms

Kirk J. Cureton, Gordon L. Warren, Mindy L. Millard-Stafford, Jonathan E. Wingo, Jennifer Trilk, and Maxime Buyckx

This double-blind experiment examined the effects of a caffeinated sports drink during prolonged cycling in a warm environment. Sixteen highly trained cyclists completed 3 trials: placebo, carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (CES), and caffeinated sports drink (CES+CAF). Subjects cycled for 135 min, alternating between 60% and 75% VO2max every 15 min for the first 120 min, followed by a 15-min performance ride. Maximal voluntary (MVC) and electrically evoked contractile properties of the knee extensors were measured before and after cycling. Work completed during the performance ride was 15–23% greater for CES+CAF than for the other beverages. Ratings of perceived exertion were lower with CES+CAF than with placebo and CES. After cycling, the MVC strength loss was two-thirds less for CES+CAF than for the other beverages (5% vs. 15%). Data from the interpolated-twitch technique indicated that attenuated strength loss with CES+CAF was explained by reduced intrinsic muscle fatigue.

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Hydration during Exercise in Warm, Humid Conditions: Effect of a Caffeinated Sports Drink

Mindy L. Millard-Stafford, Kirk J. Cureton, Jonathan E. Wingo, Jennifer Trilk, Gordon L. Warren, and Maxime Buyckx

Caffeine is regarded as a diuretic despite evidence that hydration is not impaired with habitual ingestion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a caffeinated sports drink impairs fluid delivery and hydration during exercise in warm, humid conditions (28.5 °C, 60% relative humidity). Sixteen cyclists completed 3 trials: placebo (P), carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE), and caffeinated (195 mg/L) sports drink (CAF+CE). Subjects cycled for 120 min at 60–75%VO2max followed by 15 min of maximal-effort cycling. Heart rate and rectal temperature were similar until the final 15 min, when these responses and exercise intensity were higher with CAF+CE than with CE and P. Sweat rate, urine output, plasma-volume losses, serum electrolytes, and blood deuterium-oxide accumulation were not different. Serum osmolality was higher with CAF+CE vs. P but not CE. The authors conclude that CAF+CE appears as rapidly in blood as CE and maintains hydration and sustains cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function as well as CE during exercise in a warm, humid environment.