This study investigates how self-esteem moderates decision-making processes for initiating physical activity in a consumption situation. Kang (2002) developed a structural model that integrates self-participant image congruency (SIC), attitudes, and intentions. This model was used to examine the moderating effects of self-esteem on individual decisions regarding consumption for physical activity. College students (N = 215) completed a questionnaire that included measures of SIC, attitudes, and intentions for joining a private health club, as well as a self-esteem scale (Heatherton & Polivy, 1991). Multiple group analyses using LISREL 8 were conducted between relatively high and low self-esteem participants for physical, performance, and social self-esteem dimensions. The results indicated that the direct influence of SIC on intentions is stronger for participants with high physical self-esteem than for those with low physical self-esteem, whereas the direct impact of attitudes on intentions is greater for low- than for high physical self-esteem participants. Performance self-esteem and social self-esteem, however, did not moderate decision-making processes. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Joon-Ho Kang, Richard P. Bagozzi and Jawang Oh
Although emotion has occasionally been examined as a dependent variable or outcome of physical activity involvement, it rarely has been studied as an antecedent. This study examines the role of emotion in decision-making processes for participant sport consumption. A structural model is proposed to integrate emotions with self-image congruency and attitudes as antecedents of the decision to initiate physical activity in the consumption context. Context effects were investigated by two scenarios: (1) joining a private health club and (2) skiing in an indoor ski resort. A total of 199 persons responded, and structural equation models were examined. The results indicate that emotion mediates the influence of attitudes and self-image congruency on the decision to join the club and resort. The pattern of the relationships among utilitarian, self-based, and emotive evaluations depends on the sport consumption context. Discussion of theoretical and practical issues is presented and directions for future research are suggested.