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Applying Educational Psychology in Coaching Athletes

Joonyoung Lee

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Practitioners’ Perceptions of Student-Intern Skills Necessary to be Prepared for an Internship Experience in Major Professional Sport Organizations

Soonhwan Lee and Joonyoung Han

The purpose of this study was to examine the required skills and educational background of internship students from the on-site supervisors’ point of view. A questionnaire examined the role of the internship, the skills student interns should possess and several other issues related to the intern’s experiences including the minimum number of hours for student interns’ best experiences, preferred academic backgrounds of student interns, the responsibilities of faculty internship advisors, stipend or salary, important skills student interns should possess, number of student interns organizations accept, practitioners’ thoughts on requiring internships in sport management, chances for student interns to be hired afterwards, and internship evaluation. According to 36 on-site internship supervisors’ responses to the questionnaire, 50% of the major North American professional sport leagues were paying student interns equivalent to only minimum wage or a slightly higher rate compared to the national average a paid intern was receiving ($15.00-$16.00 per hour). Other findings were the number of student interns accepted and the number of hours those interns were expected to work. However, no specific courses were required of students in order to be considered for internships. Overall, grade point average (GPA) was not found to be a main factor on-site internship supervisors used to select appropriate student interns. While it is generally assumed that a cooperative relationship among the student, the onsite internship supervisor and the academic faculty supervisor is vital, on-site internship supervisors were not as cooperative as the literature suggests. It was also determined that student interns were not consistently evaluated to any great extent and therefore a universal manual should be developed for assessment purposes. The findings of this study also documented that on-site internship supervisors and academic faculty supervisors held different expectations and perceptions in terms of fulfilling the requirements for a degree.

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Decadal Trends in Physical Activity Adherence Among Korean Older Adults: An Analysis of National Survey of Older Korean Data, 2011–2020

Joonyoung Lee, Eun Seong Kim, Hyunyoung Lee, and Jung Hoon Huh

Background/Objectives: This study investigated adherence to physical activity (PA) guidelines and associated sociodemographic factors among older Koreans from 2011 to 2020. Methods: Utilizing four public data sets from the National Survey of Older Koreans, the study included the data on 40,993 older adults 65 years and older in South Korea, collected between 2011 and 2020. Adherence to PA guidelines and sociodemographic factors were assessed through self-reported questionnaires. The data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results: Overall adherence increased from 39.1% in 2011 to 48.2% in 2017, then decreased to 37.6% in 2020 (p < .001). Men had higher adherence than women (p < .001). Age-related adherence peaked in the young-older group (65–74 years old) and was lowest in the oldest-old group (85+ years old) (p < .001). Marital status, education, and income were also significantly related to PA adherence (p < .001) across the years. Conclusion: Although continuous increase in adherence to PA among Koreans 65 years and older was observed, the decline in PA levels during the COVID era underscored the need for targeted interventions and well-informed health care policies to address demographic challenges. Still, considering that data were collected during the recommended social distancing period, a cautions interpretation of these findings is warranted. Significance/Implications: Health policies aiming to improve adherence to PA guidelines should prioritize Korean older adults who are female, belong to the oldest-old group, are single, and have low education and income levels, with the goal of enhancing health equity.