Interorganizational partnerships have been used by nonprofits in a variety of industries to build organizational capacity, yet they are currently underutilized by many youth sport nonprofit organizations. While previous research has highlighted key features of dyadic relationships that inhibit the development and maintenance of partnerships, there has been less attention to the influence of broader or complete networks. This study examined key structural properties of a youth sport nonprofit network in one municipality to determine how interorganizational partnerships were used to build organizational capacity. Whole network analysis was used to study partnerships between youth sport nonprofits and analyze the configuration and structural features of the network. Results indicated a fragmented network of youth sport nonprofit organizations, with the majority of organizations operating independently of one another, and the network itself characterized by unbalanced ties. The discussion highlights how this network structure influences organizational action and contributes to relational issues often observed at the dyadic level. The introduction of a third-party brokerage organization is discussed as a potentially useful strategy for improving this network structure.
Gareth J. Jones, Mike Edwards, Jason N. Bocarro, Kyle S. Bunds and Jordan W. Smith
Angus A. Leahy, Narelle Eather, Jordan J. Smith, Charles H. Hillman, Philip J. Morgan, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Nilsson, Sarah A. Costigan, Michael Noetel and David R. Lubans
Purpose: This study was designed to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a teacher-facilitated high-intensity interval training intervention for older adolescents (ie, 16–18 y). Methods: Two secondary schools from New South Wales, Australia were recruited, and participants (ie, grade 11 students; 16.2 [0.4] y) were randomized at the school level to the Burn 2 Learn intervention (n = 38), or a wait-list control group (n = 30). Teachers were trained to facilitate the delivery of the novel high-intensity interval training program, which involved 3 sessions per week (∼12–20 min) for 14 weeks. A range of process measures were used to assess intervention feasibility (ie, recruitment, retention, attendance, and program satisfaction). Primary (cardiorespiratory fitness, determined using the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run shuttle run test) and secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline and posttest (14-wk). Results: Sixty-eight grade 11 students were recruited at baseline (85% of target sample), 61 participants completed posttest assessments (90% retention) and on average, participants performed 1.9 sessions per week. Overall, teachers (4.0/5) and students (4.0/5) were satisfied with the Burn 2 Learn program. Group by time effects were observed for cardiorespiratory fitness (8.9 laps; 95% confidence intervals, 1.7–16.2) and a selection of secondary outcomes. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a teacher-facilitated high-intensity interval training intervention for older adolescents.
Ashley A. Walter, Abbie E. Smith, Trent J. Herda, Eric D. Ryan, Jordan R. Moon, Joel T. Cramer and Jeffrey R. Stout
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 d of creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMG FT) in college-age men. Sixteen men (age 22.4 ± 2.6 yr, height 177.4 ± 6.8 cm, weight 79.5 ± 10.6 kg; M ± SD) participated in this double-blind study and were randomly placed into either placebo (Pl; 10 g of flavored fructose powder per packet; n = 8) or Cr (5 g dicreatine citrate plus 10 g of flavored fructose powder per packet; n = 8) loading groups. Each participant ingested 1 packet 4 times/d, totaling 20 g/d for 5 days (loading). Before and after loading, each participant performed a discontinuous cycle-ergometer test to determine his EMG FT, using bipolar surface electrodes placed on the vastus lateralis of the right thigh. Four 60-s work bouts (ranging from 200 to 400 W) were completed. Adequate rest was given between bouts to allow for the participants’ heart rate (HR) to drop within 10 beats of their resting HR. The EMG amplitude was averaged over 5-s intervals for each 60-s work bout. Resulting slopes from each successive work bout were used to calculate EMG FT. A 2-way ANOVA, Group (Cr vs. Pl) EETime (pre vs. post), resulted in a nonsignificant (p > .05) interaction for supplement and time. In addition, a significant increase (p = .009) in weight was observed in the Cr group. These data suggest that there was a minimal influence of Cr loading on EMG FT for the participants in this study.
Lisa M. Barnett, David Stodden, Kristen E. Cohen, Jordan J. Smith, David Revalds Lubans, Matthieu Lenoir, Susanna Iivonen, Andrew D. Miller, Arto Laukkanen, Dean Dudley, Natalie J. Lander, Helen Brown and Philip J. Morgan
Recent international conference presentations have critiqued the promotion of fundamental movement skills (FMS) as a primary pedagogical focus. Presenters have called for a debate about the importance of, and rationale for teaching FMS, and this letter is a response to that call. The authors of this letter are academics who actively engage in FMS research.
We have answered a series of contentions about the promotion of FMS using the peer reviewed literature to support our perspective.
We define what we mean by FMS, discuss the context of what skills can be considered fundamental, discuss how the development of these skills is related to broader developmental health contexts, and recommend the use of different pedagogical approaches when teaching FMS.
We conclude the promotion of FMS is an important focus in Physical Education (PE) and sport and provide future research questions for investigation.
Narelle Eather, Mark R. Beauchamp, Ryan E. Rhodes, Thierno M.O. Diallo, Jordan J. Smith, Mary E. Jung, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Noetel, Nigel Harris, Emily Graham and David R. Lubans
This study involved the design and evaluation of the High-Intensity Interval Training Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (HIIT-SQ). Phase 1: Questionnaire items were developed. Phase 2: Australian adolescents (N = 389, 16.0 ± 0.4 years, 41.10% female) completed the HIIT-SQ, and factorial validity of the measurement model was explored. Phase 3: Adolescents (N = 100, age 12–14 years, 44% female) completed the HIIT-SQ twice (1 week apart) to evaluate test–retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of the final six items (mean = 3.43–6.73, SD = 0.99–25.30) revealed adequate fit, χ2(21) = 21, p = .01, comparative fit index = .99, Tucker–Lewis index = .99, root mean square of approximation = .07, 90% confidence interval [.04, .11]. Factor loading estimates showed that all items were highly related to the factor (estimates range: 0.81–0.90). Intraclass coefficients and typical error values were .99 (95% confidence interval [.99, 1.00]) and .22, respectively. This study provides preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of scores derived from the HIIT-SQ in adolescents.