Teaching a graduate level sport finance class can be quite complex. With a variety of concepts such as pricing, budgeting, and public funding, to convey in a limited amount of time, new forms of pedagogy are necessary to assist instructors as this technologically-advanced generation enters into academia. Subsequently, technology has been created to apply basic concepts related to finance to the complexity of a professional sports organization. One such program is the Oakland A’s Baseball Business Simulator. Through interviews and “emotional recall” (Ellis, 2004), this evaluative case study seeks to determine the effectiveness of this technology within this environment.
Joris Drayer and Daniel A. Rascher
Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer, and Stephen L. Shapiro
The daily fantasy sports (DFS) industry came under heavy criticism for marketing messages focused on the potential for financial gain despite overwhelming evidence that only a small percentage of participants were actually winning money. Under pressure, many DFS websites are shifting their focus toward the activity’s entertainment value. The purpose of the current study is to determine if participants exhibit cognitive and behavioral differences based on their reason for playing. In this study, a sample of DFS participants was segmented based on intrinsic (entertainment) and extrinsic (financial gain) motivation scores. Once separated, cognitive and behavioral contrasts were drawn. The results indicated those individuals motivated by financial gain were more similar to problem gamblers cognitively, yet those intrinsically motivated spent more time and money on the activity. Given the changing legal status of sports betting in the United States, managers and policymakers should carefully consider the risks associated with DFS participation.
Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer, and Stephen L. Shapiro
Following a mega-advertising blitz in the late summer of 2015, daily fantasy sports (DFSs) entered a maturing fantasy sports market as a new, highly accessible, and potentially lucrative alternative to traditional, season-long fantasy sports. The two activities share a name but represent substantially different business models. In the view of some policy makers and state legislatures, DFS appeared to resemble a new form of sports wagering and as a result, several U.S. states banned the activity. The current study examined the consumption behavior differences and gambling-related dispositions of those fantasy participants who play DFS and those who do not. A total of 314 fantasy football participants were surveyed, and the results contribute to what we know about gambling and DFS participation. Although distinct differences were found between the two groups, the overall assessment of the findings suggest DFS participation appears to align more with highly involved traditional, season-long fantasy sports participation than other forms of gambling.
Ted Hayduk III, Natasha Brison, and Joris Drayer
The efficacy of partitioned pricing (PP) has been investigated in a range of industries. This work showed that the usefulness of PP is situational, with numerous contextual factors playing important roles. Ticket pricing scholarship has yet to devote adequate attention to PP as a focal variable, which is problematic given the industry’s reliance on ticket revenue and the “service” fees ubiquitous in the ticketing industry. In addition, there is a need to investigate the moderating factors unique to sport consumption, such as team identification and the entertainment value of live sport. Using a sample of 403 sport consumers, this study found that PP is associated with lower perceptions of fairness but not lower enduring attitudes about the platform. Thus, sport consumers are displeased by PP, but not enough to dissuade them from future purchases. The analysis found that team identification—the entertainment value of live sports entertainment value—can further offset negative perceptions of PP.
Stephen L. Shapiro and Joris Drayer
In 2010, the San Francisco Giants became the first professional team to implement a comprehensive demand-based ticket pricing strategy called dynamic ticket pricing (DTP). In an effort to understand DTP as a price setting strategy, the current investigation explored Giants’ ticket prices during the 2010 season. First, the relationship between fixed ticket prices, dynamic ticket prices, and secondary market ticket prices for comparable seats were examined. In addition, seat location and price changes over time were examined to identify potential effects on ticket price in the primary and secondary market. Giants’ ticket price data were collected for various games throughout the 2010 season. A purposive selection of 12 games, which included (N = 1,316) ticket price observations, were chosen in an effort to include a multitude of game settings. Two ANOVA models were developed to examine price differences based on pricing structure, market, section, and time. Findings showed significant differences between fixed ticket prices, dynamic ticket prices, and secondary market ticket prices, with fixed ticket prices on the low end and secondary market ticket prices on the high end of the pricing spectrum. Furthermore, time was found to have a significant influence on ticket price; however, the influence of time varied by market and seat location. These findings are discussed and both theoretical and practical implications are considered.
Nicholas M. Watanabe, Stephen Shapiro, and Joris Drayer
Big data and analytics have become an essential component of organizational operations. The ability to collect and interpret significantly large data sets has provided a wealth of knowledge to guide decision makers in all facets of society. This is no different in sport management where big data has been used on and off the field to guide decision making across the industry. As big data evolves, there are concerns regarding the use of enhanced analytic techniques and their advancement of knowledge and theory. This special issue addresses these concerns by advancing our understanding of the use of big data in sport management research and how it can be used to further scholarship in the sport industry. The six articles in this special issue each play a role in advancing sport analytics theory, producing new knowledge, and developing new inquiries. The implications discussed in these articles provide a foundation for future research on this evolving area within the field of sport management.
Mark A. Diehl, Joris Drayer, and Joel G. Maxcy
This study examines the determinants of regular season National Football League (NFL) ticket prices on the secondary, or resale, market. Prices in the secondary market are dynamic and thus particularly useful for evaluating the demand for live NFL contests. A rich dataset is employed that contains information about all transactions conducted by a prominent ticketing site during a full NFL season and allows for a comprehensive investigation of the components of demand in this market. Included in the analysis is a first look at the demand for different seating locations within the stadium. The revealed determinants of demand for resale tickets were largely consistent with studies of the primary market; however, there are notable differences in spectators’ preferences for contest characteristics and uncertainty of outcome across the seating categories. The evidence also suggests that while hometown fans are the primary participants, visiting teams are likely active in the resale market.