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Influence of Service-Learning on Kinesiology Students’ Attitudes Toward P–12 Students With Disabilities

Emily A. Roper and José A. Santiago

Employing a grounded theory approach, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the influence of service-learning (SL) on undergraduate kinesiology students’ attitudes toward and experiences working with P–12 students with disabilities. Fourteen (9 female, 5 male) kinesiology students enrolled in an adapted physical education class participated in one of three focus group interviews regarding their experiences of working with P–12 students with disabilities. All interview data were analyzed following procedures outlined by Strauss and Corbin (1998). The following five themes represent the participants’ experiences and attitudes toward P–12 students with disabilities after their involvement in a SL project: (a) initial reactions, (b) selection of P–12 students, (c) preconceived attitudes, (d) the benefits of SL, and (e) positive experience. All 14 of the participants who volunteered to share their experiences indicated that the SL experience positively affected their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities.

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Representation of Athletic Girls on Young Adult Sport Fiction Cover Art

Emily A. Roper and José A. Santiago

The purpose of this study was to examine how and how often athletic girls were represented on the cover art of young adult (YA) sport fiction. In this research, 154 YA sport fiction books were analyzed using quantitative content analysis. Using existing sport research and theory focused on women’s representation in sport media, the researchers developed a coding scheme to assess cover art for each of the following categories: (a) presence and racial representation of female character/s on cover; (b) portrayal of female body on cover (whole body, partial body/with head, or partial body/without head); (c) portrayal of female character as active or passive; (d) portrayal of female character in or out of athletic uniform; (e) portrayal of female character in or out of the sport setting; (f) presence of sport equipment; and (g) type of cover. Findings revealed that 81% of the book covers had a female character in which 29% of the covers displayed the whole body, 47% displayed partial body/with head, and 23% displayed partial body/with no head of the female character. Only 0.06% of the book covers had a female character of color. Approximately 31% of the female characters were displayed in active positioning, 58% in athletic attire, and 44% in the sport setting. Of the books reviewed, 55% displayed equipment on the cover. The findings indicate that athletic girls have few images on YA sport fiction cover art that accurately represent their athleticism, and there is a clear absence of diverse representation. It is critical that those responsible for the design and layout of book covers clearly represent active females in action, in uniform, and in the sport context.

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A Study of Preservice Physical Education Teachers’ Content Knowledge of Health-Related Fitness

José A. Santiago and James R. Morrow Jr.

Purpose: The authors assessed common content knowledge of health-related fitness in a national representative sample of preservice physical education teachers in the United States. Methods: Six hundred and twenty-one preservice physical education teachers from 68 physical education teacher education (PETE) programs located in different regions in the United States completed the 40 multiple choice items health-related fitness knowledge test during the semester prior to their student teaching. In addition, each PETE program coordinator/department head completed the PETE Program Information Questionnaire. Results: The mean percentage correct on the test was 61.3% (M = 24.5, SD = 4.9). Analyses of variance and t-test analyses indicated that common content knowledge of health-related fitness was not a function of sex, program size, or region of the United States. Discussion/Conclusions: These data suggest that preservice physical education teachers in the United States lack common content knowledge of health-related fitness and warrant the attention of PETE programs.

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Adapted Physical Education Teachers’ Job Satisfaction

Minhyun Kim, José A. Santiago, Chan Woong Park, and Emily A. Roper

Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the authors examined adapted physical education (APE) teachers’ job satisfaction. Twelve (nine female and three male) APE teachers who had 3–43 years of teaching experience participated in the study. A semistructured interview was employed. The interviews focused on the participants’ roles and responsibilities. The following questions guided this study: (a) What social agents positively impact APE teachers’ job satisfaction? (b) what APE teachers’ roles and responsibilities are related to job satisfaction? and (c) what type of working conditions are linked to APE teachers’ job satisfaction? Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. The following four themes emerged from the analysis: (a) support from administrators, physical education teachers, and colleagues; (b) relevant and meaningful professional development; (c) itinerant working conditions; and (d) seeing students’ progress and achievement. The results of this study provide several implications to enhance APE teachers’ job satisfaction.

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Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Body Composition and Physical Performance of Elite Female Football Players

Rodrigo Villaseca-Vicuña, Jorge Pérez-Contreras, Pablo Merino-Muñoz, Esteban Aedo-Muñoz, José A. González Jurado, and Santiago Zabaloy

The COVID-19 pandemic led to an unusual situation in sports. Players were forced to stay at home for an undefined period of time and not allowed to use any training facilities or even exercise outdoors. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on physical performance and body composition in elite female football players. During the confinement period, 19 players (n = 19, M = 27 years; SD = 4.19) volunteered to participate in the present study. Participants were confined during 5 months and performed six remotely guided sessions a week, designed and structured by a certified fitness coach. Pre- and postconfinement period, players were tested for body composition, strength in the squat exercise, vertical jump, 30-m sprint, kicking velocity, and intermittent endurance capacity (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1). Fat mass and muscle mass remained unaffected after the confinement period, while only body mass showed a significant increase between periods (1.19%; p = .014). In addition, physical performance measures postconfinement showed positive changes in kicking (p < .001; effect size = 1.02), in contrast to a reduction in mean propulsive velocity against 40-kg load and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 total distance covered (p: .041 and .010, respectively). Present findings indicate that the implementation of home-based training programs during confinement periods could be sufficient stimulus to maintain body composition and physical performance (i.e., strength, vertical jump, and sprint), although they might not be sufficient to maintain intermittent endurance capacity in elite female football players.

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Practice-Based Teacher Education in Physical Education

Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Erhan Devrilmez, Peter Iserbyt, Insook Kim, Bomna Ko, José A. Santiago, Emi Tsuda, and Xiuye Xie

Background: Teacher education is a complex endeavor designed to prepare preservice teachers for the task of teaching physical education to students in K–12 schools. Yet, there is widespread criticism of teacher education outcomes within the United States and around the world. Consequently, teacher educators have been increasingly called upon to use evidence-based approaches in teacher education. Purpose: In this article, we discuss a teacher education reform called practice-based teacher education from macro and micro perspectives. Discussion: Practice-based teacher education emphasizes a curriculum that is focused on relevance defined in terms of what a teacher needs to know and do to be able to teach physical education. Evidence for curricular changes to physical education teacher education and to the content and pedagogies of methods and content classes are presented. We conclude with a discussion of how practice-based teacher education can address social injustice.

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Faculty Perspectives Using Practice-Based Teacher Education in Physical Education

Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Insook Kim, Bomna Ko, Xiuye Xie, Emi Tsuda, José A. Santiago, Peter Iserbyt, and Erhan Devrilmez

Purpose: Practice-based teacher education (PBTE) has been proposed as an approach to combat forms of teacher education that create prescriptive understandings of teaching that are disconnected from practice. In physical education, PBTE is becoming more prevalent. Some have argued that many of its elements have been in use for some time, whereas other elements have been refined or are new. In this study, we were motivated to examine the use of PBTE by physical education teacher educators and their perceptions of PBTE. Method: Participants were nine teacher educators from the United States (n = 6), Turkey (n = 2), and Belgium (n = 1). Surveys were used to gather data on the use of PBTE and the perceptions of teacher educators. Data describing the use of PBTE in their programs were descriptively analyzed. Our perceptions were interpreted using an intrinsic case study with PBTE serving as the case. Findings: Programs adopted similar and different elements of PBTE. Four themes emerged relative to the perceptions of teacher educators about PBTE: (a) how the context of the teacher educator influences their use of PBTE, (b) teacher educators’ use of PBTE, (c) the advantages of using PBTE, and (d) a critical analysis of PBTE. Conclusion: Our approach to operationalizing PBTE may help encourage useful conversations in physical education teacher education.