This study identified and quantified rambling and trembling properties of the postural control system of children 4–12 years of age. Forty five children of varying ages (4-, 8-, and 12-years) and 15 adults stood upright on a force plate and performed 5 trials with and 5 trials without vision with each trial lasting 30 s. Center of pressure, rambling, trembling, mean sway amplitude, and predominant frequency were obtained. Results revealed that the displacement of the center of pressure and overall rambling trajectories were age-related with younger children swaying more than older children and adults. Similarly, overall trembling trajectories for younger children were larger compared with older children and adults. These results suggested that a younger child’s larger body sway mostly results from difficulties using sensory information when estimating overall body position and velocity in an upright stance and is less a result from the noise in the postural control system.
Priscilla Augusta Monteiro Ferronato and José Angelo Barela
Andresa R. Marinho-Buzelli, Ana Maria Forti Barela, Jose Angelo Barela, Melissa Leandro Celestino, Milos R. Popovic and Mary Verrier
Aquatic therapies are used to restore step initiation in people with locomotor disabilities. However, there is lack of evidence of underlining mechanisms of gait initiation in water. We investigated center of pressure (CoP), vertical and anterior-posterior impulse forces, and kinematics of the first step performed in water in comparison with overground walking. The peaks of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) and the sections of CoP trajectories were longer in water than on land. Impulse forces were increased in water compared with land. Range of motion (ROM) of ankle joint increased in water while knee joint ROM did not change. We suggest that the aquatic environment may facilitate gait initiation training by allowing a longer step execution with greater stimuli and imposed resistance for the phases of gait initiation.