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  • Author: José Carlos Ribeiro x
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Jorge Mota, Maria Paula Santos and José Carlos Ribeiro

Background:

The main goals of this study were: (1) to examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) involvement and other leisure activities in a sample of Portuguese youth and (2) to analyze gender differences in PA and leisure-time activity structure.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1123 adolescents that were classified according to PA levels as active (n = 589) and nonactive (n = 534). A questionnaire assessing leisure-time activities was used.

Results:

Girls were significantly more engaged in social leisure, dutiful, and individual artistic activities during leisure time, whereas boys were more involved in sports and computer and TV viewing activities. Significant associations between PA and social leisure were found in girls (r = .18, P ≤ .001) and boys (r = .13, P ≤ .01) after adjustment for age. The same was found between level of PA and sports engagement during leisure (girls: r = .56, P ≤ .001; boys: r = .51, P ≤ .001). In girls (r = .10, P ≤ .05), but not in boys, a statistically significant association was found between PA and individual artistic activities.

Conclusions:

This study has certain implications for health-related PA promotion efforts. Our data give additional reinforcement to the importance of organized and nonorganized sports/PA during leisure time for overall levels of PA in adolescents.

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Rute Santos, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

Background:

The aims of this study were to describe physical activity (PA) prevalence and compare it with other countries and to investigate possible associations between PA and other lifestyle behaviors in Azorean adults.

Methods:

9991 adults (5723 women), aged 37.8 ± 9.5 years, of the 2004 Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study. IPAQ assessed PA. All other lifestyle behaviors (age, gender, education level, income, employment, marital status, number of children, meal frequency, sleep time, sitting time, body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumptions) were also self-reported.

Results:

57.1% of the participants met current PA recommendations and 32.2% were categorized as Health Enhancing PA (HEPA). Women were less likely to achieve PA recommendations, as well as the HEPA level. In both genders, higher education level, employment status, higher income, and sitting for more than 3h/day were negative predictors of HEPA; and, having at least 5 meals/day was positive predictor for the same PA level.

Conclusions:

There is a significant proportion of Azoreans, particularly women, that does not do enough PA. Targeted programs for Azoreans aimed to increase PA levels should pay special attention on women, and consider a multifactorial approach, once several lifestyle behaviors seem to interact with PA levels, in this population.

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Kurusart Konharn, Maria Paula Santos and José Carlos Ribeiro

Background:

The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on objective measures of physical activity (PA) in adolescence is poorly understood. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between SES and objectively measured PA in Thai adolescents.

Methods:

PA was objectively measured every 30 seconds for 7 consecutive days using ActiGraph GT1M uniaxial accelerometers in 177 secondary-school adolescents aged 13 to 18 years that were classified into 3 SES groups (low, middle, and high). The associations between SES and adolescents’ PA were examined using 1-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Chi-square test.

Results:

Adolescents of low-SES accumulated more minutes of PA and less of sedentary behavior than those of high-SES, Additionally, low-SES adolescents tended to meet the daily PA guidelines more than other groups, particularly in girls (P < .01).

Conclusions:

This study evidences an inverse relationship between SES and PA levels, and shows the importance of targeting high SES adolescents in intervention programs to enhance health behaviors. Based on these findings, we also suggest that SES must be considered as an important determinant in promoting regular PA and in increasing proportions of adolescents meeting current health-related PA guidelines.

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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Joana Carvalho and Maria Paula Santos

Background:

The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between active transport (AT), nonorganized out of school physical activity (NOPA) and organized out of school PA (OPA) with BMI in Portuguese adolescents.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1121 adolescents age 13 to 17 years-old, which were assigned to 1 of 4 PA groups according to the sum of participation in different physical activity behaviors outside of school [AT, OPA, and NOPA].

Results:

In boys but not in girls, BMI was lower as the participation in more PA behaviors outside school increased. For those who only carry out 1 PA behavior, AT was the most common behavior (boys = 48.9%; girls = 55.1%). On the other hand, NOPA was the most common behavior for those engaged in 2 types of PA (girls = 51.6%; boys = 46%). For those that carried out all the PA behaviors outside school OPA was the most common choice in both girls (59.5%) and boys (54%). AT, NOPA and OPA are different sources of PA outside school that accrued in different ways to the increased level of PA.

Conclusions:

In boys but not in girls, BMI was lower as the participation in more PA behaviors outside school increased.

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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Henrique Barros, Jos W.R. Twisk, José Oliveira and José A. Duarte

Background:

The purpose of the study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between physical activity and clustering of some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors after 1-y follow-up.

Methods:

The sample comprised 704 males and 770 females between the ages of 8 to 15 y. Clustering was defined as belonging to one or more sex and age-specific “high-risk” quartiles for biological risk factors. The longitudinal relationships were analyzed with multilevel analysis.

Results:

There was no longitudinal significant relationship between physical activity and individual biological risk factors. When biological risk factor clustering was considered, however, there was a significant longitudinal relationship with physical activity.

Conclusion:

It can be concluded that even at a young age, physical activity can play an important role in developing a healthy lifestyle profile.

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Gustavo Silva, Luísa Aires, Jorge Mota, José Oliveira and José Carlos Ribeiro

The purpose of this study was to calculate and validate reference standards for the 20-m shuttle run test (SR) in youths aged 10–18 years. Reference standards based on the number of completed SR laps were calculated by LMS method in a reference group of 5559 students. Cut-off values for SR laps were determined and tested by ROC curve analysis in a validation group (633 students), from which waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and mean arterial pressure were assessed to calculate a metabolic risk score, later dichotomized in low and high metabolic risk (HMRS). The accuracy of SR laps standards was significant for girls (AUC = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.58–0.74; p < .001) and boys (AUC = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.62–0.79; p < .001) for identifying subjects at HMRS. The 40th percentile was the best cut-off for SR laps in girls (SENS = 0.569; 1-SPEC = 0.330) and boys (SENS = 0.634; 1-SPEC = 0.266). New SR laps reference standards are able to discriminate metabolic risk levels, and may provide a valuable tool for early prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.

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Sandra Guerra, José Carlos Ribeiro, José Oliveira, Armando Teixeira-Pinto, J.W.R. Twisk, José Alberto Duarte and Jorge Mota

The purposes of the present study were to analyze the stability of biological risk factors for CVD (blood pressure [BP], percentage of fat mass [%FM], total cholesterol [TC]) and one behavioral/life style risk factor (physical activity [PA]), as well as to study the stability of biological risk factors clustering. The sample comprised 325 males and 367 females, aged 8-15 years old. Participants were classified as being “at risk” according to age and sex adjusted 4th quartile or the first for PA. Three biological risk factors (%FM, SBP and TC) showed higher stability (one-year interval; r = 0.9–0.5) than DBP (r = 0.3) and PAI (r = 0.3). It can be concluded that 46% of subjects with two and/or three biological risk factors at the first measurement remained with the same number of biological risk factors in the second measurement.

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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Joana Carvalho, Maria Paula Santos and Júlio Martins

The aim of this study was twofold (1), to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing with BMI and CRF both at baseline and over a 2-year period, and (2) to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing and changes (Δ) on BMI and CRF over a 2-year period. Data were collected in a sample of 135 (64 girls) rural children ages 7 yr-old from elementary schools in Fundao, Portugal. Obesity status was obtained by the age-sex specific BMI cut points and CRF by a 9 min run test. TV viewing was also analyzed and children were assigned as one of two groups: the low TV watching (LTV), and high TV watching (HTV), users based upon them reported to spend less or more than 2 h/day watching TV, respectively. Logistic regression showed that those who were assigned to HTV group were 2.4 times (OR = 2.48; p = .04) more likely to be classified as unfit at time 1. Further the data showed that the LTV were more likely (OR = 0.36; p = .02) to be classified in high ΔCRF change over time. The findings of this study suggest that there was a significant inverse association between times spent watching TV and CRF but not BMI over a 2-yr period.

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Clarice Martins, Francisco Silva, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

This study analyzes trends in CVD risk factors and aerobic performance. Two cross-sectional studies were performed including 138 (58 boys and 80 girls) in 1998 and 110 (44 boys and 66 girls) in 2003 adolescents. Although in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) boys performed better than girls, they had lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol (TC) than girls. The data also showed a significant year effect (p = .000) for CRF in both boys and girls. The sex–age group interaction was not significant (p > .05). This cross-sectional study revealed a marked low CRF level over time in both boys and girls.

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Jorge Mota, Helena Gomes, Mariana Almeida, José Carlos Ribeiro and Maria Paula Santos

This study analyzes the relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behaviors, socioeconomic status, and perceived environmental variables. The sample comprised 815 girls and 746 boys. In girls, non-LTPA participants reported significantly more screen time. Girls with safety concerns were more likely to be in the non-LTPA group (OR = 0.60) and those who agreed with the importance of aesthetics were more likely to be in the active-LTPA group (OR = 1.59). In girls, an increase of 1 hr of TV watching was a significant predictor of non-LTPA (OR = 0.38). LTPA for girls, but not for boys, seems to be influenced by certain modifiable factors of the built environment, as well as by time watching TV.