The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and the validity of the handgrip, basketball throw and pushups tests in children aged 6–12 years. One hundred and eighty healthy children (82 girls) agreed to participate in this study. All the upper body muscular fitness tests were performed twice (7 days apart) whereas the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test was performed 2 days after the first session of testing. All the tests showed a high reproducibility (ICC > 0.9) except the push-ups test (intertrial difference = 0.77 ± 2.38, p < .001 and the percentage error = 9%). The handgrip test showed the highest association with 1RM bench press test (r = .79, p < .01; R2 = .621). In conclusion the handgrip and basketball throw tests are shown as reliable and valid tests to assess upper body muscular strength in children. More studies are needed to assess the validity and the reliability of the upper body muscular endurance tests in children.
Jorge R. Fernandez-Santos, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Jose Luis Gonzalez-Montesinos and Jose Castro-Piñero
José Castro-Piñero, Carmen Padilla-Moledo, Francisco B. Ortega, Diego Moliner-Urdiales, Xiaofen Keating and Jonatan R. Ruiz
We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness with health complaints and health risk behaviors in 691 (323 girls) Spanish children aged 6 to 17.9.
Health complaints and health risk behaviors were self-reported using items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was computed. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by the 20-m shuttle-run test, and youth categorized as fit/unfit.
Unfit youth were more likely to report health complaints sometime (OR: 2.556, 95% CI: 1.299–5.031; and OR: 1.997, 95% CI: 1.162–3.433, respectively) and health risk behaviors such as drinking alcohol sometime (OR: 5.142, 95% CI: 1.214–21.783; and OR: 2.413, 95% CI: 1.484–3.923) than their fit counterparts. Overweight-obese youth were more likely to report health complaints (OR: 1.732, 95% CI: 1.019–2.945; and OR: 1.983, 95% CI: 1.083–3.629, respectively). The analysis of the combined influence of fitness and fatness revealed that fit youth had lower health complaints index than the fat-unfit and unfat-unfit groups (all P < .05).
Low fitness and overweight-obesity increased the risk of having health complaints in youth, yet high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness might overcome deleterious effects of overweight-obesity on health complaints.
Alberto Grao-Cruces, Julio Conde-Caveda, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Román Nuviala, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Fátima Martín-Acosta and José Castro-Piñero
Background: According to the current physical activity (PA) recommendations, children should accumulate 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) throughout the day, 30 minutes of MVPA during the school hours, and 50% of the recess time in MVPA. Our aim was to examine the temporal trends of accelerometer-based PA during the previously mentioned day segments and the proportion of children who met the PA recommendations. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 2 independent samples: 499 fourth graders (49.2% females) in 2011–2012 and 364 fourth graders (46.9% females) in 2017–2018. Hip-worn accelerometers were used to assess PA. Results: A decline in light PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA, MVPA, and total PA during whole day, and in the rate of compliance with daily MVPA recommendations in males (P < .01) was observed from 2011–2012 to 2017–2018. Females decreased their daily light PA and moderate PA (P < .05). A decline in all PA variables during school hours in both sexes (P < .05) and in the rate of compliance with the 30 minutes of MVPA recommended during school hours in males (P < .001) were observed. There were no differences in PA during recesses. Conclusions: Interventions are needed to attenuate the temporal decrease in PA levels in children.
Xiaofen Deng Keating, Louis Harrison, Li Chen, Ping Xiang, Dolly Lambdin, Brian Dauenhauer, Willy Rotich and Jose Castro Piñero
Although substantial inquiry has been made into fitness levels of students, there has been scant examination of knowledge in this domain. This article seeks to review and analyze research on student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge mastery in K–16 programs by examining studies published in the literature. Two major results emerging from the work are misconceptions about fitness and the lack of an adequate amount of HRF knowledge among students at all educational levels (i.e., elementary, secondary, and college). These results were essentially the same as those found more than 20 years ago, indicating a persistent deficiency in fitness education. In addition, little is understood as to how HRF knowledge contributes to the establishment of lifetime physical activity patterns. Student HRF knowledge determinants as well as effective instructional strategies also need thorough study. Based on these findings, implications for improving student HRF knowledge through physical education are discussed, and recommendations for future research are included.
Irene Esteban-Cornejo, David Martinez-Gomez, Laura Garcia-Cervantes, Francisco B. Ortega, Alvaro Delgado-Alfonso, José Castro-Piñero and Oscar L. Veiga
This study examined the associations of objectively measured physical activity in Physical Education and recess with academic performance in youth.
This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,780 participants aged 6 to 18 years (863 girls). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry and was also classified according to sex- and agespecific quartiles of physical activity intensities. Academic performance was assessed through school records.
Physical activity in physical education (PE) and recess was not associated with academic performance (β ranging from –0.038 to –0.003; all P > .05). Youth in the lowest quartile of physical activity in PE engaged in an average of 1.40 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and those in the highest quartile engaged in 21.60 min (for recess: lowest quartile, 2.20 min; highest quartile, 11.15 min). There were no differences in academic performance between quartiles of physical activity in Physical Education and recess.
Time spent at different physical activity intensities during PE and recess does not impair academic performance in youth.