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José Marmeleira, Luis Laranjo, Olga Marques, and Catarina Pereira

The main purpose of our study was to quantify, by using accelerometry, daily physical activity (PA) in adults with visual impairments. Sixty-three adults (34.9% women) who are blind (18–65 years) wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (minimum of 10 hr per day), including 1 weekend day. Nineteen participants (~30%) reached the recommendation of 30 min per day of PA, when counting every minute of moderate or greater intensity. No one achieved that goal when considering bouts of at least 10 min. No differences were found between genders in PA measures. Chronological age, age of blindness onset, and body mass index were not associated with PA. We conclude that adults who are blind have low levels of PA and are considerably less active compared with the general population. Health promotion strategies should be implemented to increase daily PA for people with visual impairments.

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José Francisco Filipe Marmeleira, Filipe Manuel Soares de Melo, Mouhaydine Tlemcani, and Mário Adriano Bandeira Godinho

The main aim of this research was to study the effects of a specific exercise program on the speed of behavior of older adults during on-the-road driving. Twenty-six drivers (55–78 yr old) were randomly assigned to either an exercise group or a control group. The exercise program (3 sessions of 60 min/wk for 8 wk) incorporated tasks that induced the participants to respond quickly to challenging situations. On-the-road driving tasks (under single- and dual-task conditions) included measures of simple and choice reaction time, movement time, and response time. Significant positive effects were found at follow-up resulting from participation in the exercise program: Improvements were found for several measures in all driving tasks, and a composite score reflected a better general drivers’ speed of behavior. These results show that exercise can enhance speed of behavior in older drivers and should therefore be promoted.