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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Henrique Barros, Jos W.R. Twisk, José Oliveira and José A. Duarte

Background:

The purpose of the study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between physical activity and clustering of some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors after 1-y follow-up.

Methods:

The sample comprised 704 males and 770 females between the ages of 8 to 15 y. Clustering was defined as belonging to one or more sex and age-specific “high-risk” quartiles for biological risk factors. The longitudinal relationships were analyzed with multilevel analysis.

Results:

There was no longitudinal significant relationship between physical activity and individual biological risk factors. When biological risk factor clustering was considered, however, there was a significant longitudinal relationship with physical activity.

Conclusion:

It can be concluded that even at a young age, physical activity can play an important role in developing a healthy lifestyle profile.

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Gustavo Silva, Luísa Aires, Jorge Mota, José Oliveira and José Carlos Ribeiro

The purpose of this study was to calculate and validate reference standards for the 20-m shuttle run test (SR) in youths aged 10–18 years. Reference standards based on the number of completed SR laps were calculated by LMS method in a reference group of 5559 students. Cut-off values for SR laps were determined and tested by ROC curve analysis in a validation group (633 students), from which waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and mean arterial pressure were assessed to calculate a metabolic risk score, later dichotomized in low and high metabolic risk (HMRS). The accuracy of SR laps standards was significant for girls (AUC = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.58–0.74; p < .001) and boys (AUC = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.62–0.79; p < .001) for identifying subjects at HMRS. The 40th percentile was the best cut-off for SR laps in girls (SENS = 0.569; 1-SPEC = 0.330) and boys (SENS = 0.634; 1-SPEC = 0.266). New SR laps reference standards are able to discriminate metabolic risk levels, and may provide a valuable tool for early prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.

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Jorge Mota, Pedro Silva, Luísa Aires, Maria Paula Santos, José Oliveira and José C. Ribeiro

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in physical activity (PA) during specific periods of the day among active and less-active girls.

Methods:

The sample comprised 54 girls age 10 to 15 years. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Girls were grouped as less active, active, and highly active.

Results:

Total minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly higher in more-active girls than in their less-active peers (113 and 72 min/d, respectively). The most-active groups were significantly more engaged in MVPA during the outside-of-school period than were less-active girls. Highly active girls spent a significantly higher amount of their MVPA time outside of school than did the less-active group, which spent a significantly higher proportion of MVPA time during late afternoon.

Conclusion:

Outside-of-school PA is a key point for MVPA engagement. Particularly for the less-active girls, however, schools might provide additional PA.

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Sandra Guerra, José Carlos Ribeiro, José Oliveira, Armando Teixeira-Pinto, J.W.R. Twisk, José Alberto Duarte and Jorge Mota

The purposes of the present study were to analyze the stability of biological risk factors for CVD (blood pressure [BP], percentage of fat mass [%FM], total cholesterol [TC]) and one behavioral/life style risk factor (physical activity [PA]), as well as to study the stability of biological risk factors clustering. The sample comprised 325 males and 367 females, aged 8-15 years old. Participants were classified as being “at risk” according to age and sex adjusted 4th quartile or the first for PA. Three biological risk factors (%FM, SBP and TC) showed higher stability (one-year interval; r = 0.9–0.5) than DBP (r = 0.3) and PAI (r = 0.3). It can be concluded that 46% of subjects with two and/or three biological risk factors at the first measurement remained with the same number of biological risk factors in the second measurement.

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Agustín Manresa-Rocamora, José Manuel Sarabia, Julio Sánchez-Meca, José Oliveira, Francisco Jose Vera-Garcia and Manuel Moya-Ramón

Previous meta-analyses have shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is more suitable than moderate continuous training (MCT) for improving peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in patients with coronary artery disease. However, none of these meta-analyses have tried to explain the heterogeneity of the empirical studies in optimizing cardiac rehabilitation programs. Therefore, our aims were (a) to estimate the effect of MCT and HIIT on VO2peak, and (b) to find the potential moderator variables. A search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Out of the 3,110 references retrieved, 29 studies fulfilled the selection criteria to be included in our meta-analysis. The mean difference was used as the effect size index. Our results showed significant enhancements in VO2peak after cardiac rehabilitation based on MCT and HIIT (mean difference = 3.23; 95% confidence interval [2.81, 3.65] ml·kg−1·min−1 and mean difference = 4.61; 95% confidence interval [4.02, 5.19] ml·kg−1·min−1, respectively), with greater increases after HIIT (p < .001). Heterogeneity analyses reached statistical significance with moderate heterogeneity for MCT (p < .001; I 2 = 67.0%), whereas no heterogeneity was found for the effect of HIIT (p = .220; I 2 = 22.0%). Subgroup analyses showed significant between-group heterogeneity of the MCT-induced effect based on the training mode (p < .001; I 2 = 90.4%), the risk of a new event (p = .010; I 2 = 77.4%), the type of cardiovascular event (p = .009; I 2 = 84.8%), the wait time to start cardiac rehabilitation (p = .010; I 2 = 76.6%), and participant allocation (p = .002; I 2 = 89.9%). Meta-regressions revealed that the percentages of patients undergoing a revascularization procedure (B = −0.022; p = .041) and cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline (B = −0.103; p = .025) were inversely related to the MCT-induced effect on the VO2peak.

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José Oliveira-Santos, Rute Santos, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luís Lopes, César Agostinis-Sobrinho and Jorge Mota

Background: To explore the associations between birth weight and body mass index (BMI) from 6 months to 6 years of age, with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity, and sedentary time in adolescence. Methods: Retrospective school-based study with 539 adolescents (292 girls), mean age of 13.94 (1.62) years. Anthropometric data from birth up to 6 years were extracted from individual child health booklets. CRF was estimated by 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed with accelerometers. Results: Birth weight was not associated with any outcome measured in adolescence. From the age of 6 months onwards in girls, and from 3 years in boys, BMI associated inversely with CRF in adolescence. In girls, BMI (at 12 mo and at 3 y of age) associated positively with sedentary time in adolescence, but not with physical activity. In boys, positive associations between BMI at the ages of 3, 5, and 6 years old and time spent in some intensities of physical activity in adolescence were found. Conclusions: BMI during the early years was negatively associated with CRF in adolescence, in a consistent way, for both genders, but with physical activity and sedentary time the associations were scarce and inconsistent, depending on the gender.

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Josely C. Koury, Astrogildo V. de Oliveira Jr., Emílson S. Portella, Cyntia F. de Oliveira, Gustavo C. Lopes and Carmen M. Donangelo

The purpose of this study was lo compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocyles; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.

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César Agostinis-Sobrinho, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luís Lopes, José Oliveira-Santos, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Jorge Mota and Rute Santos

Purpose:

This study examined the independent associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating adiponectin concentration in adolescents, controlling for several potential covariates.

Methods:

This is a cross-sectional study in Portuguese adolescents. A sample of 529 (267 girls) aged 12–18 years were included and categorized as overweight and nonoverweight. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by 20 meters shuttle run test. We measured serum adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting glucose, insulin and HDL-cholesterol.

Results:

After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, socioeconomic status, body fat percentage, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein, regression analysis showed a significant inverse association between adiponectin and cardiorespiratory fitness in nonoverweight participants (B=-0.359; p < .042). Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference between the highest cardiorespiratory fitness Healthy zone (above healthy zone) and the Under and the Healthy cardiorespiratory fitness zones in nonoverweight adolescents (p = .03) (F (2, 339) = 3.156, p < .001).

Conclusion:

Paradoxically, serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in nonoverweight, but not in overweight adolescents. In nonoverweight adolescents, those with highest levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (above healthy zone) presented lower levels of adiponectin compared with those in Under and Healthy cardiorespiratory fitness zones.

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Fabio Giuliano Caetano, Murilo José de Oliveira, Ana Lorena Marche, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Sergio Augusto Cunha and Felipe Arruda Moura

The purposes of this study were to investigate sprints and to characterize repeated-sprint sequences (RS) performed by athletes during professional futsal matches. We analyzed 97 players during 5 official matches using the DVideo automatic tracking system. The sprints were analyzed during the first and second halves according to playing position, and RS were categorized according to the number of sprints and the time between them. The results showed an increase (F[1, 2520] = 3.96; P = .046) in the sprint duration from the first (mean = 3.1 ± 1.3) to the second half (mean = 3.2 ± 1.2). However, no differences were found for other variables (distance covered, peak velocity, initial velocity, recovery time between sprints, and sprints performed per minute) or among playing positions. In addition, when considering RS, the results showed that RS comprising two sprints interspersed with a maximum of 15 seconds of recovery were significantly more frequent than other RS. The findings of this study characterizing the sprinting features of futsal players can help coaches to plan physical training and assessments according to the requirements of the sport.

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Poliana Alves de Oliveira, Juscelino Castro Blasczyk, Gerson Souza Junior, Karina Ferreira Lagoa, Milene Soares, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Wagner Rodrigues Martins

Background:

Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional performance in healthy adults.

Methods:

A database search was performed (MEDLine, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Web of Knowledge) to identify controlled clinical trials in English language. The mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and overall effect size were calculated for all comparisons. The PEDro scale was used assess the methodological quality.

Results:

From the 93 articles identified by the search strategy, 5 met the inclusion criteria, in which 3 presented high quality (PEDro > 6). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the effects of ERE were superior when compared with passive control on functional performance and muscle strength. When compared with active controls, the effect of ERE was inferior on function performance and with similar effect on muscle strength.

Conclusion:

ERE are effective to improve functional performance and muscle strength when compared with no intervention, in healthy adults. ERE are not superior to other methods of resistance training to improve functional performance and muscle strength in health adults.