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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Henrique Barros, Jos W.R. Twisk, José Oliveira and José A. Duarte

Background:

The purpose of the study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between physical activity and clustering of some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors after 1-y follow-up.

Methods:

The sample comprised 704 males and 770 females between the ages of 8 to 15 y. Clustering was defined as belonging to one or more sex and age-specific “high-risk” quartiles for biological risk factors. The longitudinal relationships were analyzed with multilevel analysis.

Results:

There was no longitudinal significant relationship between physical activity and individual biological risk factors. When biological risk factor clustering was considered, however, there was a significant longitudinal relationship with physical activity.

Conclusion:

It can be concluded that even at a young age, physical activity can play an important role in developing a healthy lifestyle profile.

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Kurusart Konharn, Maria Paula Santos and José Carlos Ribeiro

Background:

The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on objective measures of physical activity (PA) in adolescence is poorly understood. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between SES and objectively measured PA in Thai adolescents.

Methods:

PA was objectively measured every 30 seconds for 7 consecutive days using ActiGraph GT1M uniaxial accelerometers in 177 secondary-school adolescents aged 13 to 18 years that were classified into 3 SES groups (low, middle, and high). The associations between SES and adolescents’ PA were examined using 1-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Chi-square test.

Results:

Adolescents of low-SES accumulated more minutes of PA and less of sedentary behavior than those of high-SES, Additionally, low-SES adolescents tended to meet the daily PA guidelines more than other groups, particularly in girls (P < .01).

Conclusions:

This study evidences an inverse relationship between SES and PA levels, and shows the importance of targeting high SES adolescents in intervention programs to enhance health behaviors. Based on these findings, we also suggest that SES must be considered as an important determinant in promoting regular PA and in increasing proportions of adolescents meeting current health-related PA guidelines.

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Rute Santos, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

Background:

The aims of this study were to describe physical activity (PA) prevalence and compare it with other countries and to investigate possible associations between PA and other lifestyle behaviors in Azorean adults.

Methods:

9991 adults (5723 women), aged 37.8 ± 9.5 years, of the 2004 Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study. IPAQ assessed PA. All other lifestyle behaviors (age, gender, education level, income, employment, marital status, number of children, meal frequency, sleep time, sitting time, body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumptions) were also self-reported.

Results:

57.1% of the participants met current PA recommendations and 32.2% were categorized as Health Enhancing PA (HEPA). Women were less likely to achieve PA recommendations, as well as the HEPA level. In both genders, higher education level, employment status, higher income, and sitting for more than 3h/day were negative predictors of HEPA; and, having at least 5 meals/day was positive predictor for the same PA level.

Conclusions:

There is a significant proportion of Azoreans, particularly women, that does not do enough PA. Targeted programs for Azoreans aimed to increase PA levels should pay special attention on women, and consider a multifactorial approach, once several lifestyle behaviors seem to interact with PA levels, in this population.

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Jorge Mota, Maria Paula Santos and José Carlos Ribeiro

Background:

The main goals of this study were: (1) to examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) involvement and other leisure activities in a sample of Portuguese youth and (2) to analyze gender differences in PA and leisure-time activity structure.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1123 adolescents that were classified according to PA levels as active (n = 589) and nonactive (n = 534). A questionnaire assessing leisure-time activities was used.

Results:

Girls were significantly more engaged in social leisure, dutiful, and individual artistic activities during leisure time, whereas boys were more involved in sports and computer and TV viewing activities. Significant associations between PA and social leisure were found in girls (r = .18, P ≤ .001) and boys (r = .13, P ≤ .01) after adjustment for age. The same was found between level of PA and sports engagement during leisure (girls: r = .56, P ≤ .001; boys: r = .51, P ≤ .001). In girls (r = .10, P ≤ .05), but not in boys, a statistically significant association was found between PA and individual artistic activities.

Conclusions:

This study has certain implications for health-related PA promotion efforts. Our data give additional reinforcement to the importance of organized and nonorganized sports/PA during leisure time for overall levels of PA in adolescents.

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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Joana Carvalho and Maria Paula Santos

Background:

The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between active transport (AT), nonorganized out of school physical activity (NOPA) and organized out of school PA (OPA) with BMI in Portuguese adolescents.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1121 adolescents age 13 to 17 years-old, which were assigned to 1 of 4 PA groups according to the sum of participation in different physical activity behaviors outside of school [AT, OPA, and NOPA].

Results:

In boys but not in girls, BMI was lower as the participation in more PA behaviors outside school increased. For those who only carry out 1 PA behavior, AT was the most common behavior (boys = 48.9%; girls = 55.1%). On the other hand, NOPA was the most common behavior for those engaged in 2 types of PA (girls = 51.6%; boys = 46%). For those that carried out all the PA behaviors outside school OPA was the most common choice in both girls (59.5%) and boys (54%). AT, NOPA and OPA are different sources of PA outside school that accrued in different ways to the increased level of PA.

Conclusions:

In boys but not in girls, BMI was lower as the participation in more PA behaviors outside school increased.

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Jorge Mota, José Ribeiro, Maria Paula Santos and Helena Gomes

This study aimed to examine the relationship between obesity status (body mass index: BMI) and physical and sedentary activities in adolescents. The sample comprised 230 girls and 220 boys (14.6 years old, SD = 1.6). Physical Activity (PA) was assessed by a questionnaire. Sedentary behaviors, such as TV viewing, computer use, and commuting to and from school were analyzed. Participants were categorized as nonobese or overweight/obese according to age-adapted BMI. No significant differences were found in relation to PA characteristics or in TV watching on weekdays vs. weekends. Nonobese participants spent significantly less time using computers on weekends (p = .04) and weekdays (p = .025) than their overweight/obese counterparts. Logistic regression analysis showed that those who used computers on weekdays more than 4 hrs per day were likely (odds ratio: 5.79; p < .003) to be overweight or obese. This study identified a relationship between computer use, but not physical activity or TV viewing, and weight status among Portuguese adolescents.

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Jorge Mota, Pedro Silva, Luísa Aires, Maria Paula Santos, José Oliveira and José C. Ribeiro

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in physical activity (PA) during specific periods of the day among active and less-active girls.

Methods:

The sample comprised 54 girls age 10 to 15 years. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Girls were grouped as less active, active, and highly active.

Results:

Total minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly higher in more-active girls than in their less-active peers (113 and 72 min/d, respectively). The most-active groups were significantly more engaged in MVPA during the outside-of-school period than were less-active girls. Highly active girls spent a significantly higher amount of their MVPA time outside of school than did the less-active group, which spent a significantly higher proportion of MVPA time during late afternoon.

Conclusion:

Outside-of-school PA is a key point for MVPA engagement. Particularly for the less-active girls, however, schools might provide additional PA.

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Gustavo Silva, Luísa Aires, Jorge Mota, José Oliveira and José Carlos Ribeiro

The purpose of this study was to calculate and validate reference standards for the 20-m shuttle run test (SR) in youths aged 10–18 years. Reference standards based on the number of completed SR laps were calculated by LMS method in a reference group of 5559 students. Cut-off values for SR laps were determined and tested by ROC curve analysis in a validation group (633 students), from which waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and mean arterial pressure were assessed to calculate a metabolic risk score, later dichotomized in low and high metabolic risk (HMRS). The accuracy of SR laps standards was significant for girls (AUC = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.58–0.74; p < .001) and boys (AUC = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.62–0.79; p < .001) for identifying subjects at HMRS. The 40th percentile was the best cut-off for SR laps in girls (SENS = 0.569; 1-SPEC = 0.330) and boys (SENS = 0.634; 1-SPEC = 0.266). New SR laps reference standards are able to discriminate metabolic risk levels, and may provide a valuable tool for early prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.

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Jorge Mota, Paula Santos, Sandra Guerra, José C. Ribeiro, José A. Duarte and James F. Sallis

The goal of this study was to validate an adapted version of the “weekly checklist” in a Portuguese population. The validity was assessed by comparing self-reports against the Computer Science and Application, Inc (CSA) monitor. The sample comprised 109 children (boys, n = 42; girls, n = 67), aged 8 to 16 years old. All subjects were volunteers from local schools (Oporto region). The weekly activity checklist was modestly (r = 0.30) but significantly (p < .01) correlated with the CSA. Girls (r = 40; p < .01) had higher correlations than boys (0.28; p < .05). When the values were analyzed by age, excluding the young subjects (<10 years old), the correlation values were slightly higher (r = 0.38; p < .01). The Portuguese version of the “weekly activity checklist” had similar reliability and validity as the original version. The measure appears to have lower validity in 8- and 9-year-old children.

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Jorge Mota, Paula Santos, Sandra Guerra, José C. Ribeiro and José A. Duarte

The purpose of this study was to compare the daily activity levels of children varying in body mass over 3 consecutive weekdays. The sample was comprised of 157 children (boys, n = 64; girls, n = 93), aged 8–15 years. BMI was used as obesity indicator. Children were categorized as non-obese and over- weight/obese group, according to the age-adapted values. The CSA activity monitor was used as an objective measure of daily physical activity. No significant differences were reported in the daily physical activity among boys and girls according to BMI group. Boys were significantly more engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (p = .05) than girls. Significant differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (p = .05) were found between non-obese (69.3 min • day−1) and obese girls (50.7 min • day−1), while no significant differences were reported in boys. Differences between overall activities and involvement in MVPA emerged between overweight/obese and non-obese girls; therefore, obesity in girls may be linked to low levels of physical activity behavior.