This research focused on measuring perceived quality in the context of sport and fitness services using a novel approach in sport management: fuzzy logic. Several analytical procedures have been depicted to operate with fuzzy techniques, which may be applied to empirical research by a wide range of researchers in the sport literature, as well as sport managers. This study showed that fuzzy logic is an attractive method to increase the value of the information collected from customers’ evaluations. The implemented procedure overcomes the disadvantages of the research focused on the third-person approach, and minimizes the categorization bias and interaction bias derived from the relationship between verbal and numerical labels. An empirical study of two samples of consumers from two fitness centers illustrates the advantages of this method.
Jose A. Martínez, Yong Jae Ko and Laura Martínez
Jose A. Martinez and Steven B. Caudill
Víctor Torreblanca-Martinez, Fernando M. Otero-Saborido and José A. Gonzalez-Jurado
The purpose was to study the effects of muscle fatigue induced by countermovement jumps (CMJ) on instep kick foot velocity in young male soccer players. Fifteen under-18 soccer players from a professional club performed maximal velocity instep kicks before and after a fatigue protocol that consisted of continuous CMJ. Foot velocity at impact without fatigue, foot velocity at impact with fatigue, CMJ height without fatigue, maximum jump height in fatigue test, and CMJ height change in fatigue test on a dynamometric platform were measured. There was a significant difference between jump height with and without fatigue (P = .00; ES = 0.8), but there were no significant differences between kicking with fatigue and without fatigue (P = .580, ES = 0.10). In conclusion, although the protocol was intense enough to generate fatigue in the muscles involved in CMJ, there were no significant differences in kicking velocity under fatigue conditions with respect to kicking without fatigue in the soccer players studied.
José I. Recio-Rodríguez, Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Vicente Martinez-Vizcaino, Carlos Martin-Cantera, Maria C. Patino-Alonso, Jose A. Maderuelo-Fernandez, Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos, Luis Garcia-Ortiz and for the EVIDENT Group
This study determined the relationship between self-reported and objective measurements of physical activity with adiposity markers in a random sample of community-dwelling older adults. The sample included 439 individuals over 65 years (age 71.1 ± 7.8; 54.2% women). Regular physical activity information was collected using self-reported (questionnaire, 7-day-PAR) and objective measurements (accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X) over 7 days. Anthropometric parameters included body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. The number of patients considered active was 28% according to the results of 7-day PAR, and 69% according to objective measures of accelerometry. With every daily increase of 10 min of sedentary activity, the BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference values increased by 0.04 units, 0.14%, and 0.14 cm, respectively. According to the accelerometry data, being active was a protective factor for presenting obesity criteria (OR = 0.34, CI 95% 0.19–0.59). Objective but non self-reported physical activity was associated with adiposity markers in older adults.