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  • Author: Joseph E. Donnelly x
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Kate A. Heelan, Bryce M. Abbey, Joseph E. Donnelly, Matthew S. Mayo and Gregory J. Welk

Background:

Walking to and from school has potential to increase daily physical activity among children.

Methods:

A Walking School Bus (WSB) intervention was implemented for 2 years in 2 schools with a third school as a control. The primary aim evaluated school-wide prevalence of walking to school by self-report 6 times (fall, winter, spring). The secondary aims compared objective physical activity levels among a subsample of research participants (intervention [INT] = 201, control [CON] =123) and between frequency of walking to school groups. INT and CON participants wore an accelerometer during 4 time periods to assess daily physical activity and were measured for body mass index (BMI) and body fat each fall and spring.

Results:

School-wide prevalence of walking to school frequently (>50% of the time each week) was 27% higher in the WSB schools than in the control school. INT obtained significantly more daily physical activity than CON (78.0 [38.9] vs 60.6 [27.7] min/d, P < .05). In addition, across all schools, frequent walkers obtained 25% more physical activity (P < .05), gained 58% less body fat (P < .05), and attenuated BMI by 50% (P < .05) compared with passive commuters.

Conclusion:

This study suggests a WSB intervention may increase frequency of walking to school and establishes a link with increased daily physical activity.

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Jeffrey A. Potteiger, Erik P. Kirk, Dennis J. Jacobsen and Joseph E. Donnelly

Purpose:

To determine whether 16 months of moderate-intensity exercise training changes resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate oxidation in overweight young adults.

Methods:

Participants were randomly assigned to nonexercise control (CON, 18 women, 15 men) or exercise (EX, 25 women, 16 men) groups. EX performed supervised and verified exercise 3–5 d/wk, 20–45 min/session, at 60–75% of heart-rate reserve. Body mass and composition, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), RMR, and resting substrate oxidation were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 16 months of training.

Results:

EX men had significant decreases from baseline to 9 months in body mass (94.6 ± 12.4 to 89.2 ± 9.5 kg) and percent fat (28.3 ± 4.6 to 24.5 ± 3.9). CON women had significant increases in body mass (80.2 ± 8.1 to 83.2 ± 9.2 kg) from baseline to 16 months. VO2max increased significantly from baseline to 9 months in the EX men (3.67 ± 0.62 to 4.34 ± 0.58 L/min) and EX women (2.53 ± 0.32 to 3.03 ± 0.42 L/min). RMR increased from baseline to 9 months in EX women (1,583 ± 221 to 1,692 ± 230 kcal/d) and EX men (1,995 ± 184 to 2,025 ± 209 kcal/d). There were no significant differences within genders for either EX or CON in fat or carbohydrate oxidation. Fat oxidation was significantly higher for women than for men at 9 months in both CON and EX groups.

Conclusions:

Regular moderate-intensity exercise in healthy, previously sedentary overweight and obese adults increases RMR but does not alter resting substrate oxidation. Women tend to have higher RMR and greater fat oxidation, when expressed per kilogram fat-free mass, than men.

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Jeffery J. Honas, Erik A. Willis, Stephen D. Herrmann, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

Background:

There is limited data regarding objectively measured energy cost and intensity of classroom instruction. Therefore, the purpose of current study was to objectively measure energy cost and subsequently calculate MET values using a portable indirect calorimeter (IC) for both normal classroom instruction (NCI) and active classroom instruction (ACI).

Methods:

We assessed energy expenditure (EE) and intensity levels (METs) in elementary school children (17 boys and 15 girls) using an IC (COSMED K4b2). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate potential sex and grade level differences for age, BMI, VO2, EE, and METs.

Results:

The average EE for NCI and ACI were 1.8 ± 0.4 and 3.9 ± 1.0, respectively. The average intensity level for NCI and ACI were 1.9 ± 0.4 and 4.2 ± 0.9 METs, respectively.

Conclusions:

PA delivered through ACI can elicit EE at a moderate intensity level. These results provide evidence for ACI as a convenient/feasible avenue for increasing PA in youth without decreasing instruction time.

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Jeffery J. Honas, Richard A. Washburn, Bryan K. Smith, Jerry L. Greene, Galen Cook-Wiens and Joseph E. Donnelly

The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 ± 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 ± 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOFIT score and body weight [PAEE (kcal/min) = (1.384*SOFIT + 0.084*weight (kg)—5.126), R = .81, SEE = 1.23 kcal/min]. PAEE measured by indirect calorimeter and predicted from SOFIT and body weight were 3.04 ± 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.04 ± 0.9 kcal/min) respectively. SOFIT and body weight may provide a useful measure of PAEE associated with classroom based physical activity.

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Lauren T. Ptomey, Eric D. Vidoni, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Michael A. Thompson, Joseph R. Sherman, Anna M. Gorczyca, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

Adults with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their caregivers represent a segment of the population with low levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and limited options for increasing MPA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a group video conference approach for increasing MPA in adults with AD and their caregivers. Adults with AD and their caregivers attended 30-min group exercise sessions three times per week for 12 weeks. Exercise sessions and support sessions were delivered in their homes on a tablet computer over video conferencing software. Nine adults with AD/caregiver dyads enrolled, and seven completed the 12-week intervention. Adults with AD attended 77.3% of the group exercise sessions, and caregivers attended 79.2% of group exercise sessions. Weekly MPA increased in both adults with AD (49%) and caregivers (30%). Exercise delivered by group video conferencing is a feasible and potentially effective approach for increasing MPA in adults with AD and their caregivers.

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Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

Background: High-intensity functional training (HIFT) may offer an attractive, time-efficient alternative to traditional aerobic exercise. However, limited information is available in the literature regarding HIFT meeting exercise guidelines for energy expenditure (improve health outcomes: ≥1000 kcal/wk; weight management: ≥2000 kcal/wk) and level of intensity (moderate: 3–6 metabolic equivalents [METs], vigorous: ≥6 METs) elicited by this approach. Thus, the primary aim was to objectively measure energy expenditure and intensity of HIFT sessions. Methods: Energy expenditure was assessed in 20 adults (18–50 y, 50% females). The HIFT session format included the following segments: warm-up (∼5 min), exercise (∼35 min), and cooldown (∼5 min). Participant oxygen consumption (COSMED, L/min and mL/kg/min), heart rate (Polar RS400), and physical activity (ActiGraph GT3X+) were collected in 15-second intervals. Average kcal per minute, METs, total kcal per session, and percent maximum heart rate (HRmax) were calculated. Results: METs ranged from 5.5 to 11.6 for the complete session (including warm-up and cooldown). Participant’s HRmax was ∼80% (range: 69%–100%). Average energy expenditure was ∼485 kcal per session (∼1400 kcal/wk). The vigorous-intensity exercise portion (∼35 min) contributed to 80% of total energy expenditure. Conclusions: HIFT has the potential to meet the recommendations for exercise to improve health outcomes.