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  • Author: Joseph F. Signorile x
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Daniel H. Serravite, Arlette Perry, Kevin A. Jacobs, Jose A. Adams, Kysha Harriell and Joseph F. Signorile

Purpose:

To examine the effects of whole-body periodic acceleration (pGz) on exercise-induced-muscle-damage (EIMD) -related symptoms induced by unaccustomed eccentric arm exercise.

Methods:

Seventeen active young men (23.4 ± 4.6 y) made 6 visits to the research facility over a 2-wk period. On day 1, subjects performed a 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) elbowflexion test and were randomly assigned to the pGz (n = 8) or control group (n = 9). Criterion measurements were taken on day 2, before and immediately after performance of the eccentric-exercise protocol (10 sets, 10 repetitions using 120% 1RM) and after the recovery period. During subsequent sessions (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) these data were collected before pGz or passive recovery. Measurements included isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]), blood markers (creatine kinase, myoglobin, IL-6, TNF-α, TBARS, PGF2α, protein carbonyls, uric acid, and nitrites), soreness, pain, circumference, and range of motion (ROM).

Results:

Significantly higher MVC values were seen for pGz throughout the recovery period. Within-group differences were seen in myoglobin, IL-6, IL-10, protein carbonyls, soreness, pain, circumference, and ROM showing small negative responses and rapid recovery for the pGz condition.

Conclusion:

Our results demonstrate that pGz can be an effective tool for the reduction of EIMD and may contribute to the training-adaptation cycle by speeding up the recovery of the body due to its performance-loss-lessening effect.

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Moataz Eltoukhy, Christopher Kuenze, Jeonghoon Oh, Eryn Apanovitch, Lauren Butler and Joseph F. Signorile

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common knee injuries among adolescent athletes. Majority of the ACL injuries occur due to pivoting, sudden deceleration, and direction change without contact with any player. Preventive interventions can reduce risks of the ACL injury, thus developing a clinician friendly biomechanical assessment tool to identify athletes with such risk factors is crucial. In this study, the authors investigated the concurrent validity of a commercially available depth sensor, Microsoft Kinect, as a cost-effective alternative to the gold-standard 3-dimensional motion analysis systems in noncontact ACL screening for adolescent athletes during side-cut maneuvers. Study participants performed 45° side-cut maneuvers while collecting data from both systems concurrently. The sagittal and frontal plane kinematics were analyzed during the full stance phase and the first 20% of the stance (early deceleration). Absolute agreement (range: ICC = .767–.989) and consistency (range: ICC = .799–.992) were excellent for all measures except early deceleration frontal plane hip angle, which displayed good absolute agreement (ICC = .643) and consistency (ICC = .625). Findings showed that the Kinect has the potential to be an effective clinical assessment tool for sagittal and frontal plane trunk, hip, and knee kinematics during the side-cut maneuvers.

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Arlette C. Perry, Linda S. Crane, Brooks Applegate, Sylvia Marquez-Sterling, Joseph F. Signorile and Paul C. Miller

The present study showed that amenorrheic athletes (AAs) scored higher on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) (p < .05) than eumenorrheic athletes (EAs), indicating more aberrant eating patterns in the first group. Scores on the EAT were inversely correlated with fat intake (p < .05), simple carbohydrate intake (p < .01), and percentage saturation of iron (p < .05) and were positively correlated with total iron binding capacity (p < .01) for the total sample. Physiological assessment of athletes revealed that there were no significant differences between groups in serum lipoproteins, with both EAs and AAs having serum lipid profiles indicative of low cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the only lipoprotein significantly and positively correlated with serum estradiol levels for the entire sample (p = .01). The present study was in agreement with previous work showing that scores on the EAT represent a primary difference between EAs and AAs; the present study was somewhat different than previous work in that serum lipoproteins were not significantly related to menstrual status.

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Joseph F. Signorile, David Sandler, Fangchao Ma, Steve Bamel, Damian Stanziano, Wes Smith, Bernard A. Roos and Lauran Sandals

This study examined the validity, reliability, and discriminatory capacity of the gallon-jug shelf-transfer (GJST) test. Six hundred fifty-three independent-living older adults (463 women age 72.9 ± 7.0 years, 190 men age 74.3 ± 6.7 years) participated. Participants moved five 1-gallon jugs (≈3.9 kg) from a knee-high to a shoulder-high shelf as quickly as possible. The GJST showed an exponential performance decline with age, and there were significant correlations between the GJST and common functional tests (p < .001). High within-day and between-days reliability was detected. The test also detected differences resulting from training status (p < .01) and training protocols (p < .05). The GJST is a valid, reliable, inexpensive, safe, and easily administered clinical test for identifying physically vulnerable elders who could benefit from interventions such as exercise to improve their physical capacities and maintain independence.

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Jennifer L. Lister, Gianluca Del Rossi, Fangchao Ma, Mark Stoutenberg, Jessica B. Adams, Sara Tobkin and Joseph F. Signorile

Context:

There are numerous ways to overload the scapular stabilizers.

Objectives:

To assess scapular stabilizer activity using the Bodyblade® and other traditional training devices.

Design:

Repeated measures analysis of surface EMG data collected from the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) during shoulder flexion and abduction using Bodyblade®, cuff weight, and Thera-Band® resistance.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

Thirty collegiate athletes (20.0 ± 1.7 years).

Intervention:

Participants performed 10 repetitions of shoulder flexion and abduction.

Main Outcome Measures:

For each movement, normalized root mean square values (NrmsEMG) were computed for each muscle during each repetition under each training condition. Data were analyzed using 3 (condition) × 10 (repetition) repeated measures ANOVAs.

Results:

During shoulder flexion and abduction, the NrmsEMG of the UT, LT, and SA were significantly greater when using the Bodyblade® than the Thera-Band® or cuff weight.

Conclusion:

The Bodyblade® produces greater scapular activity than traditional resistance techniques.

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Michael F. Bergeron, Carl M. Maresh, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Joseph F. Signorile, John W. Castellani, Robert W. Kenefick, Kent E. LaGasse and Deborah A. Riebe

Twenty (12 male and 8 female) tennis players from two Division I university tennis teams performed three days of round-robin tournament play (i.e., two singles tennis matches followed by one doubles match per day) in a hot environment (32.2 ± 1.5 C° and 53.9 ± 2.4% rh at 1200 hr), so that fluid-electrolyte balance could be evaluated. During singles play, body weight percentage changes were minimal and were similar for males and females (males -1.3 ± 0.8%, females -0.7 ± 0.8%). Estimated daily losses (mmol · day1) of sweat sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) (males, Na+ 158.7, K+ 31.3; females, Na+ 86.5, K+ 18.9) were met by the players' daily dietary intakes (mmol · day1) of these electrolytes (males, Na+ 279.1 ± 109.4, K+ 173.5 ± 57.7; females, Na+ 178.9 ± 68.9, K+ 116.1 ± 37.5). Daily plasma volume and electrolyte (Na+, K+) levels were generally conserved, although, plasma [Na+] was lower (p < .05) on the morning of Day 4. This study indicated that these athletes generally maintained overall fluid-electrolyte balance, in response to playing multiple tennis matches on 3 successive days in a hot environment, without the occurrence of heat illness.