The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-wk intervention that used guided relaxation and exercise imagery (GREI) to increase self-reported leisure-time exercise behavior among older adults. A total of 93 community-dwelling healthy older adults (age 70.38 ± 8.15 yr, 66 female) were randomly placed in either a placebo control group or an intervention group. The intervention group received instructions to listen to an audio compact disk (CD) containing a GREI program, and the placebo control group received an audio CD that contained 2 relaxation tracks and instructions to listen to music of their choice for 6 wk. Results revealed that listening to a GREI CD for 6 wk significantly increased self-reported leisure-time exercise behaviors (p = .03). Further exploration of GREI and its effects on other psychological variables related to perceived exercise behaviors may substantiate its effectiveness.
Bang Hyun Kim, Roberta A. Newton, Michael L. Sachs, Peter R. Giacobbi Jr. and Joseph J. Glutting
Douglas A. Pizac, Charles B. Swanik, Joseph J. Glutting and Thomas W. Kaminski
Context: Lateral ankle sprains are the most common injuries in high school sports. While ankle taping is a preferred method of external prophylactic support, its restrictive properties decline during exercise. The Under Armour® Highlight cleat is marketed on the premise that it provides added support without the need for additional ankle taping. Objective: To determine if differences in ankle joint laxity and postural control exist between football players wearing the Under Armour® Highlight cleat (Under Armour Inc, Baltimore, MD) as compared to a low/mid-top cleat with ankle tape. Design: Crossover trial. Setting: Athletic training room and football practice field sideline. Patients: 32 interscholastic football players (15.8 ± 1.0 y; 178.9 ± 7.4 cm; 87.1 ± 21.4 kg). Interventions: Ankle laxity was assessed using an instrumented ankle arthrometer (Blue Bay Research Inc, Milton, FL), while postural control testing was performed on the Tekscan MobileMat™ Balanced Error Scoring System (BESS; South Boston, MA). The 2 treatments included Under Armour® Highlight cleats and a low/mid-top cleat with ankle tape applied to the nondominant ankle only. Measurements were taken before and immediately after practice. Main Outcome Measures: The independent variable was treatment (Highlight vs low/mid-top cleat with ankle tape). Dependent variables included ankle arthrometry measures of anterior displacement (mm), inversion/eversion rotation (deg), and the modified BESS error scores. A linear mixed-effects model was used for analysis. Results: The low/mid-top cleat with tape condition had significantly higher inversion range-of-motion (ROM) and inversion/eversion rotation postexercise when compared to the Highlight cleat (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study provide some evidence that the Under Armour® Highlight cleat restricts ankle ROM following a training session better than the taped low/mid-top cleat. Further study is warranted to determine if this high-top style of football cleat can reduce the incidence of ankle sprains and how it might compare to spat taping.