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Joseph P. Winnick

A continuum for sport participation is depicted and contrasted for guiding decisions on sport participation based upon integration, and for facilitating provision of innovative experiences along the continuum. The continuum ranges from regular sport with no modifications to segregated adapted sport.

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Joseph P. Winnick

This presentation traces and reviews past and contemporary concerns, issues, or priorities relating to professional preparation with special emphasis on the identification of people who have had a significant impact upon professional preparation, and the graduates of our programs, who will provide leadership in the future.

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Joseph P. Winnick

This article synthesizes advances related to special physical education and sport from 1975 to the present. Generic advances are presented within the categories of legislation, sport programs and activities, testing and assessment, certification, and instructional and curricular materials. Subsequently, additional advances particularly relevant to individuals with orthopedic, educational, auditory, or visual handicapping conditions are presented.

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Joseph P. Winnick

The relative performance of individuals with visual handicapping conditions in physical education is directly or indirectly associated with severity of visual impairment, gender, age, activity type, method of ambulation, and parental attitudes. Each of these influences success, extent, and/or nature of participation in physical activity, which in turn results in characteristics, limitations, abilities, and needs that must be considered in order to effectively implement physical education programs in mainstreamed settings. Several implications for mainstreaming based on research pertaining to these factors are presented.

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Joseph P. Winnick

Health-related criterion-referenced physical fitness has developed into an important domain for all youngsters in American schools. Although considered important for youngsters with or without disabilities, much less attention has been given to measuring and assessing health-related physical fitness of youngsters with disabilities. The Brockport Physical Fitness Test (BPFT) was developed as a healthrelated criterion- referenced test of fitness as a part of a federal grant entitled Project Target: Criterion-Referenced Physical Fitness Standards for Adolescents with Disabilities. This special issue of the Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) presents the conceptual framework for the BPFT and the technical information used as a basis for the selection of test items and standards associated with the test. Technical information is presented in separate articles covering aerobic functioning, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility/range of motion. This first article introduces the reader to health-related fitness testing, Project Target, the BPFT, the general organization of information in this issue, and key contributors to Project Target and the development of the BPFT.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

This study analyzed the physical fitness performance of 141 youngsters with spinal neuromuscular conditions, by age, sex, and severity of condition, and compared the performance of these subjects with 1,192 normal youngsters on selected physical fitness test items. Boys and girls, ages 10-17, with paraplegic spinal neuromuscular conditions were tested on 11 physical fitness test items which were modified, as necessary, for their participation. Where comparisons were appropriate, the scores of normal subjects of the same sex and age generally exceeded significantly those of the paraplegic subjects. There was a trend for paraplegic subjects to possess larger skinfolds than normal youngsters, and, where differences existed in skinfolds, the skinfolds of older paraplegic subjects exceeded those of younger paraplegic subjects. Few significant sex and age differences emerged for the paraplegic group on nonskinfold (performance) items. The test battery administered did not discriminate among the performance of subjects with various levels of spinal lesions at or below the sixth thoracic vertebra.

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Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick

This manuscript provides information on the test items and standards used to assess flexibility and range of motion in the Brockport Physical Fitness Test. Validity, attainability, and reliability of the back saver sit and reach, the shoulder stretch, the modified Apley test, the modified Thomas test, and the Target Stretch Test are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the utility of these tests for youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairments (blindness), cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, or congenital anomalies or amputations. Suggestions for future research are provided.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

In order to enhance the physical fitness development of individuals with selected handicapping conditions. Winnick and Short (1984b) published a manual which presented the Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test and training program. This article presents criteria and supporting technical information pertaining to the selection of test items.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

In order to compare their physical fitness, the UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 203 retarded and nonretarded subjects with cerebral palsy from both segregated and integrated settings throughout the United States. The test was administered to subjects between the ages of 10 and 17 by professional persons prepared as field testers. Subjects were free from multiple handicapping conditions other than mild mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the performance of younger subjects on dominant grip strength. Regardless of intellectual classification, older subjects significantly exceeded the scores of younger subjects on the softball throw and flexed arm hang. No significant differences between retarded and nonretarded subjects at the .01 level of significance were found on any of the test items on the UNIQUE test. The factor structures of both retarded and nonretarded groups were identical with regard to the items that loaded on specific physical fitness factors.

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Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short

The Project UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 153 hard of hearing, 892 deaf, and 686 hearing subjects in the age range of 10 to 17 years to contrast their physical fitness status. Relatively few significant differences between groups were found. Only on the sit-up test did hearing subjects surpass the performance of at least one of the two auditory impaired groups in at least two of the three age groups contrasted. Although some gender and age interactions were found on other test items, no clear pattern relative to a comparison of hearing and auditory impaired groups occurred. Age and gender performances within the auditory impaired groups were similar to those expected of hearing groups.