This study describes game play patterns in two beginning volleyball classes for the set, forearm pass, serve, and spike. The subjects, 58 male and female university students, were pretested and placed into ability groups. The 22 days of class were videotaped and the videotapes were analyzed by tallying successful and unsuccessful trials for the four skills. A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine any differences between classes and between ability groups for contacts per serve and percentage of successful trials. No significant difference was reported between classes, but there were significant differences between ability groups for contacts per serve and percentage of successful trials except for spike trials. Plots provided the semester game play patterns for analysis and indicated that the low-ability group contacted the ball fewer times than the other groups and was not as successful when contact was made. According to the plot patterns, game play did not result in performance improvement. Instruction needs to incorporate gamelike drills and lead-up games to bridge the gap from skill drills to game play.
Marilyn Buck and Joyce M. Harrison
Tracy L. Pellett and Joyce M. Harrison
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of refinement tasks on female seventh- and eighth-grade students’ (N = 200) daily practice success (average daily correct and total trials, and daily correct/total [C/T] ratios) and overall achievement (students’ pretest to posttest improvement) for an introductory 11-day volleyball unit. Six intact classes were randomly assigned to three groups: (a) control, (b) group receiving refinement tasks during skills progressions (extension, refinement, and application [E/R/A] group), (c) group receiving no refinement tasks during skills progressions (extension and application [E/A] group). From the analysis of the data, it was concluded that refinement tasks did have a significant positive effect on students’ daily practice success (daily C/T ratio) and overall achievement.
Tracy L. Pellett and Joyce M. Harrison
This study examined low- and high-skilled students’ (N = 68) immediate practice success in response to a teacher’s specific, congruent, and corrective feedback for different tasks (extension, refinement, and application). Data were gathered from an introductory 11-day volleyball unit taught to female seventh and eighth graders (two intact classes) by a physical education specialist. Practice success immediately after teacher feedback was characterized by significant improvement in performance by both ability groups for extension, refinement, and application tasks for the pass and refinement and application tasks for the set.
Marilyn Buck, Joyce M. Harrison and G. Rex Bryce
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between learning trials and achievement for four volleyball skills—set, forearm pass, serve, and spike. The subjects studied totaled 58 male and female students in two university beginning-volleyball classes. Twenty-two class periods were videotaped, and the tapes were analyzed to determine all correct and incorrect skill trials made by each student each day for the four skills studied. The data analysis included learning trials, learning curves, and achievement. The most consistent result of the statistical analyses was the importance of the total correct trials in determining achievement. For the forearm pass, the serve, and the spike, outside-of-class participation increased the number of total correct trials. The beginning skill level, represented by the pretest score, also influenced achievement. Average trials per day per student were very low, and low-skilled students did not get as many correct or total trials as high-skilled students. This study supports previous studies that suggest that discrete trials might be a more appropriate measure of student achievement than ALT-PE or time-on-task.
Joyce M. Harrison, Gilbert W. Fellingham, Marilyn M. Buck and Tracy L. Pellett
This study compared volleyball achievement and task-specific self-efficacy for high-, medium-, and low-skilled learners using two teaching styles. Students were pre-, mid-, and posttested on skills and self-efficacy and were ability grouped from skill pretest scores. Learning trials were tallied for 58 students in two university classes, and growth curves for each student were created by plotting the percentages of successful trials against the 19 instructional days. ANOVA, used to determine relationships between the teaching styles and the rate of change in volleyball performance, revealed two significant aptitude treatment interactions (ATIs). For skill practice, low-skilled learners did better with command style on the set, and the practice style was best for low-skilled learners on the spike. Self-efficacy increased for all students, with no significant difference in style.
Connie L. Blakemore, H. Gill Hilton, Joyce M. Harrison, Tracy L. Pellett and James Gresh
Mastery learning is an instructional strategy that embraces the philosophy that almost any student can learn what is being taught given sufficient time and help. Through Bloom’s group-based, teacher-paced model, 71 seventh-grade boys were taught basketball skills. Students in two treatment groups (mastery and nonmastery) and a control group were compared on the performance of psychomotor skills in isolation and in a competitive game situation before, midway through, and following their training. Students in the mastery group were not taught new skills until 80% had mastered the present skills. The mastery group performed significantly better on isolated skills than did the nonmastery and control groups. There was no significant difference between groups in the performance of skills in a competitive game situation.
Joyce M. Harrison, Lisa A. Preece, Connie L. Blakemore, Robert P. Richards, Carol Wilkinson and Gilbert W. Fellingham
This study examined volleyball achievement and task-specific self-efficacy for 182 students in 6 beginning college volleyball classes taught using either the Mastery Learning or Skill Teaching models. Three instructors each taught one Mastery Learning and one Skill Teaching class. Assessments included the AAHPERD pass, set. and serve tests, the Stanley spike test, successful and unsuccessful game trials. Bandura-type self-efficacy scales, and a knowledge test. A random coefficients growth curve model analyzed the intercepts and slopes of the learning curves and revealed significant pre- to posttest improvement on skills tests, self-efficacy, and the percentage of correct passes and serves in game play for all students. No significant difference existed between the two models on average number of trials per day; rate of improvement for the pass, serve, or spike skills tests; self-efficacy; percentage of correct passes, sets, or serves in game play; contacts per serve in game play; or knowledge scores. The Mastery students’ rate of learning was significantly better on the set skills test (1.3 points higher) and the percentage of successful spikes in game play, in which they started significantly lower. The low-skilled students improved at a faster rate on the serve and on self-efficacy for the pass, set, and serve. Males had higher self-efficacy than females, while females increased more rapidly in self-efficacy for the pass, set, and serve. All results were analyzed at the .05 level of significance. Students learned to play volleyball and improved significantly in skill performances with either model.