The purpose of this study was to examine how four physical education teachers planned lessons. The multi-case approach provided a naturalistic, descriptive account of planning at two levels: daily and yearly plans. Two general research questions guided this study: How do the subjects plan for class in terms of time, setting, and so forth? What factors influence their planning patterns? Four teachers were observed over an intensive 2-week period for data collection. Data consisted of observations, interviews, and excerpts from documents and records. The researcher assumed the role of participant-observer and remained in the school for the entire school day during the data collection. The results indicated that the four teachers did not use the classical ends/means model for planning but instead employed informal planning habits that typically focused on daily activities, not coherent efforts to match objectives with content. This pattern does not necessarily produce disorganized classes, however, as the researcher described the teachers as having positive in-class instructional behaviors. It is suggested that the teachers did in fact plan for classes, however briefly or informally.
Judith H. Placek
Judith H. Placek
The Basic Stuff Series, nine books summarizing the body of knowledge in physical education and giving ideas for teaching this knowledge, was published by AAHPERD in 1981 and has become a best-seller. This study set out to discover who has purchased Basic Stuff and to determine if and how the purchasers are using the books. A survey questionnaire was sent to 966 individuals who had purchased Basic Stuff from 1982 to 1986. Results indicate that about two-thirds of the respondents had read the books and one-half to two-thirds said they were using Basic Stuff in their work. Many asked for more help in implementing Basic Stuff in their classes. An analysis of the change effort was done based on research on planned change in education.
Judith H. Placek and Lynda Randall
The purpose of the study was to compare the academic learning time (ALT) of elementary students in physical education classes taught by specialists with those taught by classroom teachers. Physical education classes of 7 specialists and 13 nonspecialists were observed using the revised ALT-PE instrument. The data revealed close similarities within the large categories of context and learner involvement, although interesting differences appeared within the subcategories. No significant difference was found in measures of ALT-PE. The results indicate that although specialists may select more appropriate learning activities, knowledge of content may not be the most significant variable in organizing for maximized student participation and success.
Judith H. Placek and Stephen Silverman
Linda L. Griffin and Judith H. Placek
Judith H. Placek and Linda L. Griffin
Sarah A. Doolittle, Patt Dodds and Judith H. Placek
Patt Dodds, Linda L. Griffin and Judith H. Placek
Linda L. Griffin, Patt Dodds, Judith H. Placek and Felix Tremino
Patt Dodds, Judith H. Placek, Sarah Doolittle, Kathy M. Pinkham, Thomas A. Ratliffe and Penelope A. Portman
Within a social-systems framework, this study described teacher/coach recruits’ (TCs) personal attributes, sport-participation social situation backgrounds, being influenced by significant others on occupational choice, and other occupational decision factors. TCs were compared on these variables with recruits into other sport-related occupations (ORs). TCs and ORs shared some similar personal attributes but had different gender proportions and high school academic backgrounds. Both groups had extensive backgrounds in sport, but TCs participated more during high school and college. The two groups’ most influential significant others differed, as did their ranked lists of occupational attractors. Other occupational decision factors (age of decision, firmness of decision, career maps) were similar. These results are explained with reference to social-systems theory.